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Philip Hammond

taken control of most of the country. International attention now focused on the huge refugee camps which had developed on Rwanda’s borders. Around two million people fled the violence and the RPF advance, most taking refuge in Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo), but with substantial numbers also in Tanzania and Burundi. A cholera epidemic among refugees prompted further calls for international

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

situation (as in Baobab Experience and Presidio, the two solidarity groups in Italy we studied, discussed in detail later on). Social media platforms are used by solidarity groups to produce alternative media, as well as to reframe or critically comment on mainstream media coverage of refugee issues. Finally, we discuss the responses of anti-migrant groups, and particularly how they share conspiratorial narratives about the ugly truth of immigration and lend them a degree of credibility and authenticity not possible within mainstream news contexts. Following the news in a

in How media and conflicts make migrants
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Songs, jokes, movies and other diversions
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

, we will discuss some of the examples that refugees in Birmingham, Nottingham and London shared with us, including songs, jokes and comedy clips shared on social media. Music and films as an imaginative resource We asked participants if there was music they associated with their experience in the UK, or which gave them some sense of hope in the face of the circumstances they were dealing with. Some of them mentioned music from the countries they had left, or shared YouTube clips with us. This included Nubian music from Sudan, Kurdish music from Turkey, as well as

in How media and conflicts make migrants
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

Western responsibilities for old and new colonialism, including military interventions abroad and militarised border controls. We are examining these narratives as a postcolonial discourse produced by ‘receiving countries’ about themselves and ‘the others’ crossing their borders. Questioning the ‘crisis’ frame Refugee crisis. Migrant crisis. Humanitarian crisis. Solidarity crisis. EU governance crisis. Crisis of European values and principles. Crisis of humanity. Crisis of asylum law. There has been a proliferation of crisis discourses in the media and in public

in How media and conflicts make migrants
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Sam Rohdie

as it makes its way forward to the French customs and immigration post. In the car is the driver, a French bookseller from Hendaye, the first French town after the crossing, and Carlos, a Spanish refugee living in Paris. The car has come from Madrid, some hundreds of miles south of France. Carlos is a refugee from Franco’s Spain and a professional revolutionary seeking to overthrow the Spanish dictatorship. He has been in

in Montage

The book explores how we understand global conflicts as they relate to the ‘European refugee crisis’, and draws on a range of empirical fieldwork carried out in the UK and Italy. It examines how global conflict has been constructed in both countries through media representations – in a climate of changing media habits, widespread mistrust, and fake news. In so doing, it examines the role played by historical amnesia about legacies of imperialism – and how this leads to a disavowal of responsibility for the reasons people flee their countries. The book explores how this understanding in turn shapes institutional and popular responses in receiving countries, ranging from hostility – such as the framing of refugees by politicians, as 'economic migrants' who are abusing the asylum system – to solidarity initiatives. Based on interviews and workshops with refugees in both countries, the book develops the concept of ‘migrantification’ – in which people are made into migrants by the state, the media and members of society. In challenging the conventional expectation for immigrants to tell stories about their migration journey, the book explores experiences of discrimination as well as acts of resistance. It argues that listening to those on the sharpest end of the immigration system can provide much-needed perspective on global conflicts and inequalities, which challenges common Eurocentric misconceptions. Interludes, interspersed between chapters, explore these issues in other ways through songs, jokes and images.

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Melodramatizing the Hungarian Holocaust
R. Barton Palmer

's disclosure of the long-hidden, is the object that provides the film with its title. In the film, Costa-Gavras poses a simple question. Was a postwar refugee from Hungary, now an American citizen, in his youth a notorious Arrow Cross gendarme who personally murdered women and children and took delight in the torture and rape of adolescent Jewish girls? Or is he what he has seemed to be for the past forty years: a hard-working family man, loyal to the culture and values of both the land of his birth and his adopted country? The final link in the chain of evidence, mostly

in The films of Costa-Gavras
How displaced people are made into ‘migrants’
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

categorisation and to differentiate between varieties of need and entitlement. Such attempts can be discerned both in the invention of the ‘asylum seeker’ (Fekete 2001; Goodman and Speer 2007) and in the diligent activity of polling companies in mapping popular attitudes to migrants of differing kinds (Blinder and Richards 2018). The majority of the people who helped us to understand the process of being made a ‘migrant’ were or had been in the asylum process. Some had achieved refugee status and some in Britain had taken British citizenship (this was not the case in Italy

in How media and conflicts make migrants
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Unsettling dominant narratives about migration in a time of flux
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

Conclusion: unsettling dominant narratives about migration in a time of flux We began this project at a time when attitudes towards refugees within Western countries seemed in flux: where official hostility – exemplified by former UK Prime Minister David Cameron’s comment about refugees as a ‘swarm’ (BBC News 2015b) – contrasted with solidarity movements to donate money and practical necessities to refugee camps in Calais and elsewhere. The circulation of the photo of Alan Kurdi seemed pivotal in these shifts in attitude, which in retrospect turned out to be

in How media and conflicts make migrants
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Conflict, media and displacement in the twenty-first century
Kirsten Forkert, Federico Oliveri, Gargi Bhattacharyya, and Janna Graham

Introduction: conflict, media and displacement in the twenty-first century When we embarked on the work that informs this book, the term ‘refugee crisis’ had only recently re-entered European debate. Since that time, considerable energies have been devoted to explaining and critiquing the framing of crisis and the events leading to unprecedented numbers of people in need moving across the globe. This project also reflects on this context where displaced populations meet anti-migrant anxieties, but we have attempted to reframe the discussion to unsettle what has

in How media and conflicts make migrants