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Author: Ian Connor

At the end of the Second World War, some 12 million German refugees and expellees fled or were expelled from their homelands in Eastern and Central Europe into what remained of the former Reich. The task of integrating these dispossessed refugees and expellees in post-war Germany was one of the most daunting challenges facing the Allied occupying authorities after 1945. The early post-war years witnessed the publication of many works on the refugee problem in the German Federal Republic (FRG). This book explores the origins of the refugee problem and shows that the flight and expulsion of the refugees and expellees from their homelands from 1944 onwards was a direct consequence of National Socialist policies. It outlines the appalling conditions under which the expulsions were carried out. The book then examines the immensity of the refugee problem in the Western Occupation Zones in economic and social terms. An analysis of the relations between the refugee and native populations in the Western Occupation Zones of Germany in the period 1945-1950 follows. The book also focuses on the attitude of the political parties towards the refugees and expellees in the early post-war years and analyses the newcomers' voting behaviour up to 1950. It argues that while economic and political integration had been largely accomplished by the late 1960s, social integration turned out to be a more protracted process. Finally, the book examines political radicalisation: despite disturbances in refugee camps in 1948-1949 and the emergence of expellee trek associations in 1951-1952.

The long ordeal of Balkan Muslims, 1912-34
Uğur Ümit Üngör

v 14 v Becoming and unbecoming refugees: the long ordeal of Balkan Muslims, 1912–34 Uğur Ümit Üngör Introduction: the Balkan Wars as a watershed The twin Balkan Wars of 1912–13 truncated the Ottoman Empire and sparked more than a decade of population politics in the region. Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria wrested large territories from the Ottomans and expelled hundreds of thousands of Muslims from those lands. As the conflicts escalated into total warfare, defenceless civilians were assaulted by all sides: Muslims under Bulgarian and Greek rule, and Christians

in Europe on the move
Refugees and schools in the Manchester region
Bill Williams

18 ‘Bright young refugees’: refugees and schools in the Manchester region One way in which young refugees might gain the right of entry to Britain was by offering proof of their acceptance by a British school, although they still required a British sponsor who would guarantee to cover the cost of their accommodation, their maintenance and such fees as the school demanded. Britain’s twelve Quaker boarding schools are said to have offered, between them, 100 scholarships to refugees, although some, like Peter and Hans Kurer, among the forty refugee scholars at Great

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Julie Thorpe

6 Citizens, immigrants and refugees Debates on citizenship, immigration and refugees in the Austrofascist state showed the boundaries of pan-German identity more clearly than any other identity discourse between the world wars. Austrofascists and German-nationalists had different views about who the true refugees were, but both sought to curb immigration of Jews and reduce Jews already living in Austria (both citizens and non-citizens) to the status of a legal minority with few political and social rights, as we saw in Chapter 5. This chapter shows how the

in Pan-Germanism and the Austrofascist state, 1933–38
Refugee industrialists in the Manchester region
Bill Williams

4 ‘Refugees and Eccles Cakes’: refugee industrialists in the Manchester region In September 1967 Dr Heinz Kroch, the German-Jewish refugee from Berlin who thirty years earlier had founded the Lankro Chemical Company in Eccles, an industrial town of some 45,000 people four miles west of Manchester, was presented by the Mayor of Eccles with a casket and scroll to honour his admission to the Roll of Freemen of the Borough.1 It was an occasion notable, amongst other things, as the first on which the Freedom had been conferred on anyone who had not served on the

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary
Rebekah Klein-Pejšová

Hungarian Jewry and the wartime crisis in Austria-Hungary v 7 v Between refugees and the state: Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria-Hungary1 Rebekah Klein-Pejšová Introduction Galician Jews crossed the border by the thousands into the Kingdom of Hungary when Russian troops advanced on the Eastern Front in September 1914. They fled from the Russian army, aware of the fate of Jews in Russia’s western borderlands expelled en masse from their homes and sent deep into the interior of the empire by military commanders fearful of breaches

in Europe on the move
The Kinder
Tony Kushner

5 Constructing (another) ideal refugee journey: the Kinder Introduction Mollie Panter-Downes became for many Americans the voice of Britain during the Second World War.1 She wrote for the New Yorker for half a century, a relationship which began in earnest with her powerful description of the Kindertransport. Set up by the British government and voluntary bodies in November 1938, this refugee movement eventually brought close to ten thousand children from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland, 90 per cent of whom were of Jewish origin. Panter-Downes went

in The battle of Britishness
Ian Connor

4 Refugees and political parties, 1945–50 Introduction Historians and political scientists have so far devoted little attention to the refugees’ impact on political life in the Western Occupation Zones of Germany. This is surprising since the newcomers undoubtedly represented an important factor in post-war West German politics simply by dint of their numerical strength. They made up some 16 per cent of the West German electorate at the first Bundestag Election held in August 1949, while in Schleswig-Holstein, the state most severely affected by the refugee

in Refugees and expellees in post-war Germany
Ian Connor

1 The origins of the refugee problem German settlements in Eastern and Central Europe Even before the end of the Second World War, German refugees and expellees began to flood into Central Europe from the eastern territories of the Reich. Many of those who fled or were expelled from their homelands in Eastern Europe from 1944 onwards were the descendants of German settlers who had arrived as early as the twelfth century. Some of the earliest recorded settlements took place in Silesia and the Carpathian mountains where the political elites encouraged the

in Refugees and expellees in post-war Germany
Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22
Emilia Salvanou

Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’ v 13 v From imperial dreams to the refugee problem: population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22 Emilia Salvanou Introduction The twentieth century came to be known as the century of the refugee, with the Great War marking the beginning of decades of forced human mobility.1 Nevertheless, especially as far as the Balkans are concerned, population mobility had started much earlier. By the nineteenth century, with the prospect of a diffusing discourse of nationalism and an Ottoman Empire that

in Europe on the move