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The politics of repatriation and return in a global era of security
Tazreena Sajjad

The violence that erupted on 25 August 2017 in the Rakhine State in Myanmar led to an exodus of Rohingya refugees to Bangladesh. By mid 2018, the total number of Rohingyas in the southern district of Cox's Bazaar in the Chittagong Division was over 919,000, although this is still a conservative estimate (ICSG, 2018 ). More likely, today Bangladesh hosts over a million Rohingyas. Called the fastest growing refugee crisis since the Rwandan genocide, the 2017 arrivals underscore the plight of a people too often forgotten in the international

in Displacement

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

Bryan Fanning

5 Refugees and asylum seekers Introduction This chapter examines how contemporary responses to refugees and asylum seekers in Ireland have been shaped by a legacy of exclusionary state practices and racism.1 As noted in the last chapter, this legacy included overt anti-Semitism within refugee and immigration practices from the late 1930s prior to Ireland’s ratification in 1956 of the UN Convention on Human Rights (1951). The arrival of increasing numbers of asylum seekers in recent years was met by expressions of racism and intolerance within Irish political

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Coinciding locales of refuge among Sahrawi refugees in North Africa
Konstantina Isidoros

Research and scholarly debates focus on refugees as the Other, always kept at arm's length, at a distant site somewhere in a Global South, usually trying to get into the Global North. They are perceived as people fleeing from a supra-local site of crisis, either as internally displaced people (IDPs) within their local nation, or on to an external host and then further onwards into the global arena – moving from dystopic local to utopian global in a unilineal motion, between local to national via transnational spaces. Somewhere in between, they

in Displacement
Predictable arrivals
Nadine El-Enany

Chapter 4 Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers: predictable arrivals Several works exist that compare British governments’ responses to refugees over time.1 Each traces the arrival and reception of groups of refugees, demonstrating how each was treated differently, offering explanations for governments’ varying levels of ‘generosity’. Yet refugee movements are not appropriate for comparison when divorced from the context of Britain’s colonial identity. The relevance of Britain’s contemporaneous identity as an empire, and the connection between this global

in (B)ordering Britain
Discretionary migration in the 1980s
A. James Hammerton

3 Thatcher’s refugees and Thatcher’s beneficiaries: discretionary migration in the 1980s A bleak image captured by photographer Barry Pollitt of a long queue in Manchester conveys familiar messages about popular interest in emigration among Britons. The patient crowd of ‘thousands’, we are told in one caption, stood under umbrellas ‘for hours’ hoping to attend an ‘Australian information day’.1 The photograph includes much of what we have come to associate with years of austerity emigration after 1945, with long-suffering Britons gathered on a wet March day in

in Migrants of the British diaspora since the 1960S
Institutions and the challenges of refugee governance
Dalia Abdelhady

7 Dalia Abdelhady Media constructions of the refugee crisis in Sweden: institutions and the challenges of refugee governance In an article entitled ‘The Death of the Most Generous Nation on Earth’, American journalist James Traub (2016) claims that ‘The vast migration of desperate souls from Syria, Iraq, and elsewhere has posed a moral test the likes of which Europe has not faced since the Nazis forced millions from their homes in search of refuge. Europe has failed that test.’ Sweden stands out as an exception in Traub’s analysis due to the country’s generous

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
John Herson

5 Refugees from the Famine ‘The fever wards were full’1 The Irish population of the Stafford district quadrupled between 1841 and 1851.2 The Irish Famine had an immediate impact on districts like Stafford as well as on the better-known cities like Liverpool. The flood of emigrants began to hit Liverpool and other western ports in December 1846, and by the beginning of 1847 the refugees had reached Staffordshire. A correspondent to the Staffordshire Advertiser wrote that ‘It is painful to see these poor fellows in their wanderings through the country. Their

in Divergent paths
Deterrence policies and refugee strategies
Martin Bak Jørgensen

4 Martin Bak Jørgensen Representations of the refugee crisis in Denmark: deterrence policies and refugee strategies When (then) Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen gave his New Year’s Address on 1 January 2016 he focused particularly on the high number of refugees and asylum seekers who came to Europe and Denmark in 2015.1 The number both pressed and challenged Denmark, he said and then continued: Let us be honest with each other – we are challenged: it challenges our economy when we have to spend many more billions on asylum seekers and refugees. Money that

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
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Law, race and empire
Author: Nadine El-Enany

(B)ordering Britain argues that Britain is the spoils of empire, its immigration law is colonial violence and irregular immigration is anti-colonial resistance. In announcing itself as post-colonial through immigration and nationality laws passed in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, Britain cut itself off symbolically and physically from its colonies and the Commonwealth, taking with it what it had plundered. This imperial vanishing act cast Britain’s colonial history into the shadows. The British Empire, about which Britons know little, can be remembered fondly as a moment of past glory, as a gift once given to the world. Meanwhile immigration laws are justified on the basis that they keep the undeserving hordes out. In fact, immigration laws are acts of colonial seizure and violence. They obstruct the vast majority of racialised people from accessing wealth amassed in the course of colonial conquest. Regardless of what the law, media and political discourse dictate, people with personal, ancestral or geographical links to colonialism, or those existing under the weight of its legacy of race and racism, have every right to come to Britain and take back what is theirs.