71 countries registering a reduction in political rights and civil
liberties ( Freedom House, 2018 ).
All of which puts the viability of global liberal institutions increasingly in doubt. This idea
of a protected place where, regardless of one’s identity (ethnicity, nationality,
religion, gender, sexuality, but also whether or not one is a dissident), one’s basic
rights are secure is constitutively liberal. As fewer and fewer governments, and more and more
people, view the existence of such a sanctuary within society as fanciful, illegitimate and
: Realism and Post-Fordism ’, Critical
Enquiry , 39 : 2 ,
347 – 66 .
T. ( 2011 ),
‘ Harnessing the Poer of Feedback Loops ’,
Wired , 19 June , www.wired.com/2011/06/ff_feedbackloop/ (accessed 19 November
D. ( 2014 ),
‘ The New World Development Report (on Mind, Society and Behavior): Lots
to Like, but a Big Fail on Power, Politics and Religion ’,
Oxfam , 16 December , http://oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/lots-to-like-in-the-new-world-development-report-on-mind-society-and-behavior-but-a-big-fail-on-power-politics-and-religion
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
equation in Nigeria today
appears to be lopsided. If you look at the distribution of power, you discover that
some ethnic groups or geopolitical zones are deliberately schemed out or not
considered relevant to be accommodated. Ethnicity and religion to a large extent
determine who gets what in the country’s political configuration. The
question of ethnicity becomes more prominent when you are dealing with issues
concerning the security of the country. As it stands now, most of
York : Dover Publications ).
Girard , R. ( 2005 ), Violence and the Sacred ( London : Continuum ).
Gray , J. ( 2007 ), Black Mass: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia ( London : Penguin ).
Grossman , D. ( 2009 ), On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society ( New York : Back Bay Books ).
Pinker , S. ( 2011 ), The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined ( London : Viking ).
Said , E. ( 2019 ), Orientalism ( London : Penguin Classics ).
Virilio , P. and Lotringer
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
the new technology of cinema with the same conviction. The SCF seemed to have been more enthusiastic, being a private charity founded by two activist sisters known for their criticism of government policy during the Great War ( Mahood and Satzewich, 2009 ). Advocacy remained a core value once SCF was founded: ‘it has been our lot to champion children whose parents, country, government or religion happened to be unpopular and this has not made the work of getting funds any easier’ ( Record of the Save the Children Fund [hereafter, Record ], 1921a : 67). Operating
interventions, such as enclosure systems and night raids, but UNHCR describes
resistance to such registration practices as ‘Rejection of registration
practice based on religion, customs or superstition: Disaffected groups in search of
a pretext may reject the use of certain registration practices, such as invisible
ink or wristbands, biometrics, or taking of photographs’ ( UNHCR, n.d.a ).
My second example, inspired by the important work of Scott-Smith (2013) and Glasman (2018) , is the MUAC band
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in
Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith
and differentiation with which it intersects and which shape survivors’
lives, including considering how race, age, ethnicity, class, religion, location,
sexuality and disability intersect with one another and shape sexual victimisation.
These factors are not fixed variables and demand contextual knowledge.
Survivors’ views and insights must be central to understanding how to respond
to their needs. The contextual nature of survivors’ experiences and needs may
A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism
Islam has become the ideology underpinning the rejection of peace and
the promotion of anti-Western ideologies. This study, in doing so, takes
as its point of departure the distinction between the religion of Islam
and Islamism. The focus is those groups, in the main non-state actors, which
represent Islam in a politicized pattern. The term
‘Islamism’ refers to political Islam – particularly
the general public – that particular policy areas
are legitimate security concerns and therefore require special attention,
oversight, and control.
Beginning with the religion law of 1997, and progressing through
laws on social organisations, political parties, extremists, migration,
foreigners, the media, and political demonstrations, the Russian state has
tightened up its control of civil society in recent years. In most of these
cases there are sufficient regulations for the state to move with a clear
legal basis against groups or individuals which might be
strengthen royal power at the expense of the established Church.
Figure 3.1 State religions in Europe, c. 1560
A time out of joint
A key question of political theory emerged from this turbulence: what is the relationship between religion and war? On the one hand, many spokesmen of the established Church maintained the right to wage war against infidels and heretics – Spanish jurists in particular argued that heretics should be punished by war and that infidels, who set themselves outside the law of God and nature, have no true