, art and mathematics, depending where you are based; see http://stemtosteam.org/ , http://steam-notstem.com/ as examples). STREAM has also been proposed which would add religion and the arts to the mix, whilst STEMM also incorporates medicine. It is perhaps easy to overlook the role of the social sciences within these acronyms, perhaps on the assumption that they would fall within the ‘science’ category, but it is important to remember that such disciplines are rarely fully recognised within the typical ‘science’ communication activities encompassed in STEM
activity we interact with people from different backgrounds and social situations and with varying needs and requirements. These can impinge not only on the wider considerations of how to design an activity but also on the practical considerations that might be made within it. Discrimination can occur on a variety of bases, but the key issues that may impinge on a research context are perhaps those based on disability, race, religion, sex and age. Discrimination does not always occur on purpose, and in a research communication context you should be most cautious about
, they need no ‘complementation’). They are complete in themselves. These are intransitive verbs, for instance:
‘He laughed all the way to the bank.’
‘More people died .’
‘Incomes have risen since the 1950s.’
Others need something more, commonly an object, to complete the meaning. In this case, verbs are used transitively, as in the following sentences in which the transitive verb takes a direct object:
She wrote the essay.
‘Sociologists define religion as a cultural system of
and theorising, whereby in the late nineteenth century the disciplines of sociology, psychology and social work all emerged, represented by specific associations as well as academic homes within university environments (Bogenschneider and Corbett, 2010 ).
However, over a period of considerable research expansion, with emerging perspectives and evidence making huge impacts on health, transportation, politics, religion and national confidence, by the late nineteenth century the enthusiasm for new research was not without questioning in some quarters (Knight
research communication where there is often a specific focus on groups who have a particular gender, ethnicity or educational background. The focus on gender and ethnicity is perhaps related to the common concern that specific genders and ethnic backgrounds appear to find certain disciplines unappealing, but it is also important to keep in mind that there are all sorts of ways socio-demographic principles can be considered, including on the basis of age, religion, sexuality, disability, culture and socio-economic context (McMaster, 2008 ).
connections and mapping them out in relation to your major sources for your essays can be a useful way of organising some of your critical reading and note taking. You should also be looking for the evidence used to justify the arguments made in a text.
Try answering some of the following questions about the main texts that you deal with in your essays.
At what level of social organisation does the text conduct its analysis? Some examples could include:
a. Macro structures such as social institutions, e.g. family and kinship, religion or