71 countries registering a reduction in political rights and civil
liberties ( Freedom House, 2018 ).
All of which puts the viability of global liberal institutions increasingly in doubt. This idea
of a protected place where, regardless of one’s identity (ethnicity, nationality,
religion, gender, sexuality, but also whether or not one is a dissident), one’s basic
rights are secure is constitutively liberal. As fewer and fewer governments, and more and more
people, view the existence of such a sanctuary within society as fanciful, illegitimate and
: Realism and Post-Fordism ’, Critical
Enquiry , 39 : 2 ,
347 – 66 .
T. ( 2011 ),
‘ Harnessing the Poer of Feedback Loops ’,
Wired , 19 June , www.wired.com/2011/06/ff_feedbackloop/ (accessed 19 November
D. ( 2014 ),
‘ The New World Development Report (on Mind, Society and Behavior): Lots
to Like, but a Big Fail on Power, Politics and Religion ’,
Oxfam , 16 December , http://oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/lots-to-like-in-the-new-world-development-report-on-mind-society-and-behavior-but-a-big-fail-on-power-politics-and-religion
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
equation in Nigeria today
appears to be lopsided. If you look at the distribution of power, you discover that
some ethnic groups or geopolitical zones are deliberately schemed out or not
considered relevant to be accommodated. Ethnicity and religion to a large extent
determine who gets what in the country’s political configuration. The
question of ethnicity becomes more prominent when you are dealing with issues
concerning the security of the country. As it stands now, most of
York : Dover Publications ).
Girard , R. ( 2005 ), Violence and the Sacred ( London : Continuum ).
Gray , J. ( 2007 ), Black Mass: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia ( London : Penguin ).
Grossman , D. ( 2009 ), On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society ( New York : Back Bay Books ).
Pinker , S. ( 2011 ), The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined ( London : Viking ).
Said , E. ( 2019 ), Orientalism ( London : Penguin Classics ).
Virilio , P. and Lotringer
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
the new technology of cinema with the same conviction. The SCF seemed to have been more enthusiastic, being a private charity founded by two activist sisters known for their criticism of government policy during the Great War ( Mahood and Satzewich, 2009 ). Advocacy remained a core value once SCF was founded: ‘it has been our lot to champion children whose parents, country, government or religion happened to be unpopular and this has not made the work of getting funds any easier’ ( Record of the Save the Children Fund [hereafter, Record ], 1921a : 67). Operating
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in
Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith
and differentiation with which it intersects and which shape survivors’
lives, including considering how race, age, ethnicity, class, religion, location,
sexuality and disability intersect with one another and shape sexual victimisation.
These factors are not fixed variables and demand contextual knowledge.
Survivors’ views and insights must be central to understanding how to respond
to their needs. The contextual nature of survivors’ experiences and needs may
interventions, such as enclosure systems and night raids, but UNHCR describes
resistance to such registration practices as ‘Rejection of registration
practice based on religion, customs or superstition: Disaffected groups in search of
a pretext may reject the use of certain registration practices, such as invisible
ink or wristbands, biometrics, or taking of photographs’ ( UNHCR, n.d.a ).
My second example, inspired by the important work of Scott-Smith (2013) and Glasman (2018) , is the MUAC band
reward to terrorism. Still, it has been a huge leap forward, made with an eye to the EU: the reforms were practically the EU stipulation to start accession negotiations with Turkey.
Future developments will tell whether these Turkish moves will be reciprocated by Europe and the West. If positive, Turkish society will become more pluralistic, open, and liberal minded. If negative, radicalism, introversion, religionism, and excessive nationalism will rule the day in Turkey. Time will tell
religion in Turkey, what has been achieved in this field, and the almost religious zeal – “secular fundamentalism” – in which secularism has been applied in the country:
The proclamation of the Republic in 1923 was followed by the abolition of the office of the caliphate in 1924. Other steps were taken in the course of the 1920s and early 1930s towards secularizing the Republic. These included the abolition of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Pious Foundations, abolition of religious courts, proscription of male religious headgear, namely the
continuous one; each sustains the other.9
In this way rituals and specific symbols serve to produce collective identities.
In the case of post-Communist Russia and Serbia, the symbolism of religion
became entwined in the re-articulation of a shared sense of collective or
national identity. In a sense then, as this chapter argues, the wars in Kosovo
and Chechnya were not about religion per se, but rather about maintaining and iterating a coherent sense of national identity – Serbia and Russia
became protectors against invaders (Turks, Muslims, Arabs). The inception