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Lindsey Dodd

State after the Third Republic committed suicide on 10 July 1940. The Armistice with Hitler that withdrew France from combat also fixed extortionate reparations payments, vastly restricted military capacity and divided the country into the northern Occupied Zone and the southern ‘Free’ Zone. While the Germans v2v Introduction plundered French industry and agriculture, from the spa town of Vichy Pétain began his National Revolution. Met enthusiastically in conservative quarters, Pétain’s project, with its home-grown anti-Semitism, would progressively draw France

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
From the Gromyko declaration to the death of Stalin (1947–53)
Joseph Heller

Czechoslovakian government that the reparations agreement with West Germany was not an anti-Soviet plot and that Israel had also demanded reparations from East Germany, but his explanations were rejected. 67 The Israeli government was horrified by the Prague trials but remained silent, fearing a reaction would further complicate the plight of the Jews of the Eastern bloc. 68 Ben-Gurion sharply censured the Israeli

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
From Truman to Eisenhower (1948– 53)
Joseph Heller

payment, arms acquisition, immigrant absorption, and preparations for emergencies were obtainable only in the United States. In addition, Israel could not hope to receive reparations from Germany without US involvement and Israel did indeed get special treatment, receiving $100 million. However, Washington was concerned about how the Arabs would react. US officials were also wary about how the Israeli

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Joseph Heller

harmful to US interests. 2 The US embassy in Amman said peace negotiations would only be possible if Israel made concessions. It would have to internationalize Jerusalem, recognize the Arab refugees’ right of return, make reparations and adjust borders to permit villagers to return to their lands, otherwise the spread of Communism would be encouraged. 3 The new Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Joseph Heller

the advantages and disavantages of its relationship with Israel, and was therefore open to compromise. Ben-Gurion sought to establish diplomatic relations with West Germany. To opponents he said that West Germany did not need to be rehabilitated by Israel. It was already a member of NATO and East Germany was a member of the Warsaw Pact and had not paid reparations to the Jewish people as West Germany

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Abstract only
European integration as a system of conflict resolution in the Franco-German relationship (1950–63)
Boyka Stefanova

and had to pay an indemnity of 5 billion francs to the German Empire. During the 70-year period after that France and Germany fought against each other in the two world wars. At the end of the First World War the Versailles Treaty imposed reparations and territorial annexation on Germany, inducing a new cycle of nationalism and enmity which led to Hitler’s occupation of one-third of French territory during the

in The Europeanisation of conflict resolution
Managing the great power relations trilemma
Graeme P. Herd

, paramilitaries and local elites act in a coordinated manner in opposition to the centre? Edward Lucas argues that a new generation warfare is moving away from the scripted rhetoric-kinetic sequence characterised by ‘ultimatums, declarations of war, invasions, counterattacks, second and third fronts, and finally a negotiated surrender, payment of reparations and a new territorial settlement’. 16 The new trend

in Violence and the state
Samantha Newbery

of 1952–60. It is important to note that the five techniques were not used together from the outset. Rather, each was developed over time. It is also significant that in many, if not all, of these internal security operations allegations of mistreatment of various sorts were levelled against the British. In 2009, for example, five elderly Kenyans launched a claim with the High Court for reparations in respect of abuse

in Interrogation, intelligence and security
Abstract only
Humanity and relief in war and peace
Rebecca Gill

photograph of the German delegation to the London Reparations Conference, the Manchester Guardian of 2 March 1921 published a gloomy letter from Edward Carpenter and his old ‘pro-Boer’ allies Kate Courtney and Marian Ellis (Lady Parmoor). ‘Civilisation itself seems to be on the wane’, they decried. ‘The nations are filled with mistrust and antipathy for each other, the classes have

in Calculating compassion
The Memorandum of Understanding (1964–65)
Joseph Heller

learned that Israel had upgraded the Dimona reactor to produce plutonium, meaning it could produce a nuclear weapon within nine months. Polarization was growing, the Soviet Union and the Arabs on the one side and the United States and Israel on the other. Washington could compel Israel to agree to its policies, the report maintained, especially when reparations payments from Germany should end in 1966

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67