too, in 1931, eight years after Frank Romer’s first article on sports injuries, came the first book on sports injuries – Charles Heald’s Injuries and Sport . 8 In this period the British government also took a renewed interest in physical education and national fitness, passing the Physical Training and Recreation Act in 1937. 9 Changes in the mechanism and direction of government funding, and in the structure and practice of research in the universities led to a snowballing production of physiological knowledge about the human body at work and play. Changes
This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.
The international growth and influence of bioethics has led some to identify it as a decisive shift in the location and exercise of 'biopower'. This book provides an in-depth study of how philosophers, lawyers and other 'outsiders' came to play a major role in discussing and helping to regulate issues that used to be left to doctors and scientists. It discusses how club regulation stemmed not only from the professionalising tactics of doctors and scientists, but was compounded by the 'hands-off' approach of politicians and professionals in fields such as law, philosophy and theology. The book outlines how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that 'transdisciplinary groups' were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies. It also examines their links with influential figures in the early history of American bioethics. The book centres on the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy, who was the most high-profile advocate of the approach he explicitly termed 'bioethics'. It shows how Mary Warnock echoed governmental calls for external oversight. Many clinicians and researchers supported her calls for a 'monitoring body' to scrutinise in vitro fertilisation and embryo research. The growth of bioethics in British universities occurred in the 1980s and 1990s with the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics. The book details how some senior doctors and bioethicists led calls for a politically-funded national bioethics committee during the 1980s. It details how recent debates on assisted dying highlight the authority and influence of British bioethicists.
The Irish health system is confronted by a range of challenges, both emerging and recurring. In order to address these, it is essential that spaces are created for conversations around complex ethical and legal issues. This collection aims to provide a basis for ongoing engagement with selected issues in contemporary Irish health contexts. It includes contributions from scholars and practitioners across a range of disciplines, most particularly, ethics, law and medicine.
The focus of the collection is interdisciplinary and the essays are situated at the intersection between ethics, law and medicine. Important issues addressed include admission to care homes; assisted suicide; adolescent decision-making; allocation of finite resources; conscientious objection; data protection; decision-making at the end of life; mental health; the rights of older people; patient responsibilities; stem cell research; the role of carers; and reproductive rights. From these discussion, the collection draws out the following interlinking themes, addressing difference; context and care; oversight and decision-making; and, regulating research.
The essays are theoretically informed and are grounded in the realities of the Irish health system, by drawing on contributors’ contextual knowledge.
This book makes an informed and balanced contribution to academic and broader public discourse.
professional society for fertility specialists, felt ZAR10,000 was too much money for compensation, driving the price up to unaffordable levels for locals and constituting coercion for egg providers. The Ministry of Health temporarily shut down the agency. It soon reopened, albeit following new regulations set out by SASREG that limited compensation to, at that time, a ZAR5000 (~ US$750 in 2004) flat rate per egg provision (it has now gone up to ZAR7000). Numerous other agencies opened subsequently; at one point in my research there were seven SASREG-accredited agencies, but
psychological distress (Elmir etal., 2010 ; Forssén, 2012 ; Nilsson, 2014 ; Thomson and Downe, 2008 ), while the rhetoric of ‘trauma’ is rarely used to describe women's experiences of poor treatment in the global south. Recently there has been increasing use of the term ‘obstetric violence’ across transnational contexts. Researchers working in a wide range of locations have thus adopted the term, including in South Africa (Pickles 2015 ; Chadwick, 2016; 2017 ; Dutton and Knight, 2020 ; Lappaman and Swartz, 2019 ), India (Chattopadhyay, Mishra and Jacob, 2018
anxieties and reflections of gay men (and the extant sources are largely expressive of gay male voices) captured in telephone logs and interviews. These offer some indication of the personal response to the crisis in Wales. As an initial setting-out of the historical territory, the narrative below is undoubtedly tentative and subject to correction and clarification as further research is conducted. There
years that followed, the threat that HIV posed to the general population was discussed more and more, cementing the myth of sex workers as important vectors of transmission. Sex workers as a public health risk In the late 1980s, a series of research projects were conducted by public health officials on sex work and HIV/AIDS. These studies contributed to the perception that sex
in countries like Venezuela have demanded that obstetric violence be criminalised and recognised as a form of gender-based violence, these (and other) debates suggest that obstetric violence is a highly divisive term, pitting healthcare providers and scholars in the global south against Euro-American feminists. Why has obstetric violence become so polarising and why the sudden interest in it? Firstly, as Sen et al. ( 2018 ) posit, current research and policy interest in examining disrespectful care during childbirth have been partly triggered by
In Psychoanalysis and the family, Richard Bates reveals the striking range and extent of the influence of Françoise Dolto (1908–88) – child psychoanalyst and France’s leading authority on parenting and family dynamics from the 1970s onwards.
Against the backdrop of rapid economic, social and cultural change, Dolto emerged as a new, reassuring, national presence. Seen as a national treasure, her views proved influential on a wide range of issues linked to psychology, parenting, education, gender, sexuality, bioethics and children’s culture and rights. Dolto claimed the mantle of a progressive, innovative expert who swept away outdated concepts – but Bates demonstrates that her ideas in fact had deep roots in right-wing, anti-feminist currents. Dolto used her media platforms and the cultural authority of psychoanalysis to ensure that her psychoanalytic vision affected the whole French nation and was implanted in a variety of institutional settings. Bates shows how her vision had lasting repercussions, in areas ranging from the treatment of autism to the organisation of children’s centres.
In demonstrating Dolto’s importance, this highly original, thoroughly researched book makes an essential contribution to historical understanding of twentieth-century French society. It forces a reassessment of the place of psychoanalysis in French social history, showing that its true significance lay well beyond the academic seminar or the consulting room.