This chapter considers the benefits of, and an approach to, undertaking research as part of the task of a trauma centre. Ongoing research into the changing needs of communities affected by emergency or conflict is fundamental to informing policy, advocating for service development, supporting the needs-directed commissioning of services and training, and to developing practice
Traditionally, childhood and children’s everyday lives have been explored through the views and understandings of adults. This adult gaze has rendered children as objects rather than as subjects of research. Research was done on children rather than with children and was carried out by adults, who often considered themselves as experts on children’s lives. This approach
reported that the Soviets were performing clinical tests with similar drugs. From these examples, it is clear that the military has not hesitated to overrule ethical norms with regard to this type of research. This is why many feel that the military-industrial complex is untrustworthy when it comes to the treatment of soldiers as individuals, when according to Kant's moral philosophy they should never be treated merely as a means
the law among the objects of their influential analyses in 168 168 Responses social theory.2 The third generation of critical theorists affiliated with the Frankfurt School has now established legal theory as a central field of research, also with significant contributions from scholars whose primary training is in other fields. This trend is manifest in Axel Honneth’s Hegelian philosophy of law, Rainer Forst’s theorem of justification, which draws on Rawlsian liberalism, Hauke Brunkhorst’s combining of systems-theoretical with discourse
This book provides a unique perspective on the Allied bombing of France during the Second World War which killed around 57,000 French civilians. Using oral history as well as archival research, it provides an insight into children's wartime lives in which bombing often featured prominently, even though it has slipped out of French collective memory. The book compares three French towns with different experiences of bombing: Boulogne-Billancourt , Brest, and Lille. Divided into three parts dealing with expectations, experiences and explanations of bombing, the book considers the child's view of wartime violence, analysing resilience, understanding and trauma. The first part of the book deals with the time before bombing. It examines how the French prepared for war and preparations made specifically for bombing, showing how state-level and municipal-level preparations. The second part considers the time during bombing and its aftermath. It discusses the experience of being bombed, examining children's practical, sensory and emotional responses. The fascinating and frightening scenes in the immediate aftermath of bombing that made lasting impressions on children, including destruction, chaos and encounters with violent, public death. Changes in status as a result of bombing becoming a sinistre, refugee or evacuee had far-reaching consequences in some children's lives, affecting their education and economic situation. The last section looks at the way in which air raids were explained to the French population. It considers the propaganda that criticised and defended the Allies, and an understanding of the history of Vichy.
This book focuses on the paradoxical character of law and specifically concerns the structural violence of law as the political imposition of normative order onto a "lawless" condition. The paradox of law which grounds and motivates Christoph Menke's intervention is that law is both the opposite of violence and, at the same time, a form of violence. The book develops its engagement with the paradox of law in two stages. The first shows why, and in what precise sense, the law is irreducibly characterized by structural violence. The second explores the possibility of law becoming self-reflectively aware of its own violence and, hence, of the form of a self-critique of law in view of its own violence. The Book's philosophical claims are developed through analyses of works of drama: two classical tragedies in the first part and two modern dramas in the second part. It attempts to illuminate the paradoxical nature of law by way of a philosophical interpretation of literature. There are at least two normative orders within the European ethical horizon that should be called "legal orders" even though they forego the use of coercion and are thus potentially nonviolent. These are international law and Jewish law. Understanding the relationship between law and violence is one of the most urgent challenges a postmodern critical legal theory faces today. Self-reflection, the philosophical concept that plays a key role in the essay, stands opposed to all forms of spontaneity.
Throughout history, states have tried to create the perfect combatant, with superhuman physical and cognitive features akin to those of comic book superheroes. However, the current innovations have nothing to do with the ones from the past, and their development goes beyond a simple technological perspective. On the contrary, they are raising the prospect of a human-enhancement revolution that will change the ways in which future wars will be fought and may even profoundly alter the foundations upon which our modern societies are built. This book discusses the full ethical implications of these new technologies, making it a unique resource for students and scholars interested in the morality of warfare.
Refusing to adopt a binary vision, political theorist Jean-François Caron argues that, when analysed from an ethical viewpoint, the development and use of capacity-increasing technologies in the military is far more complex than it first appears, since it presents us with a significant moral dilemma. On the one hand, enhancing soldiers’ capacities can be interpreted as a moral obligation on the part of the military. On the other, such technologies might also end up harming fundamental moral principles of warfare. Without condemning them as evil and inadmissible, Professor Caron proposes a nuanced and balanced appraisal of capacity-increasing technologies in the military as a tool that ought to be used contingently on the respect of certain moral criteria.
‘qualitatively different to a memory that is merely lived and experienced’.3 In contrast to other nations, the land of liberty, equality and fraternity has, until quite recently, dismissed oral history as ‘partial and partisan’.4 In Italy, Germany, Scandinavia, the former Soviet countries of Eastern Europe, the Anglophone nations, Spain, across South America and in many parts of Africa and Asia, oral history has become a valued historical research tool. As a methodology and a movement it has struggled for acceptance inside scholarly academic history in France – although
it affected children in specific ways, not least when they were evacuated alone. Second, children are absent from a great deal of research on wartime France, in contrast to elsewhere; this study is thus a step towards a better understanding of v5v Introduction their experiences. And third, these war children are still alive today and affected by what happened. They carry the memory of this war, and are sometimes vocal, but have often remained silent about a formative period of their lives made shameful through the acts of adults in the past. Children, bombing and
forcefully: her ignorance left her ‘terrorised, traumatised’. Ignorance prevented the integration of the frightening event into a wider picture. The limitations on children’s knowledge should not be seen as barriers to historical enquiry, but they bring into sharp focus the epistemological boundaries of historical evidence of this kind. Yet part of the value of this research is in recognising that people can analyse their own understanding, and comment on it perceptively. A belief that children lack agency within society may have contributed to their omission from a