Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods
during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva, Ann-Christin Zuntz, Ruba al Akash, Ayat Nashwan, and Areej Al-Majali
at the income-generating activities that our
interlocutors engage in during the (literal or perceived) absence of their husbands.
The fourth section asks how middle-aged women juggle their economic roles with more
traditional duties as matchmakers, grandmothers and mothers-in-law.
Methodology and Study Participants
This project was funded by the Scottish Funding Council’s (SFC) Global
Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) Internal Pump Priming Fund at the
French, German and Dutch (Keane 1996 , p. 305). Within its first year of publication hundreds of thousands of copies circulated throughout Europe in several languages (Walker 2000 , p. 55).
The spread of Enlightenment ideas was also aided by the advent of new social institutions. In France, intellectuals and academics established the salon – an elitist forum for daring discussions, gossip and socializing. In Britain and the Netherlands there emerged pubs and clubs and coffee houses. In Scotland, there was a notable growth in scientific societies in the
’s ambassador to Mongolia doesn’t wear British national costume – jeans and football shirt’. 20 Who is the butt of this joke? Is it ‘the British’ (which, given the national dress situation in Scotland and Wales, here seems to be used synonymously with ‘the English’)? Hardly. It is, arguably, everybody who dons a national dress, be that Mongols, Scots or others. The national dress strategy does not make ambassadors appear as clean and smart as does the hegemonic strategy. Ambassadors choosing the national dress strategy end up being less presentable, and so at a relative
to recognise the loss and waste that came out of conflict and the passion
to heal and to reconcile.
Northern Ireland played Ireland’s starring role in the first industrial
revolution. It has a strong entrepreneurial tradition, a rich multifaceted
culture drawing on the deep wells of Irish, British and Scottish tradition.
But just at the point where its most educated generation ever appeared,
it slid into the Troubles and so has never until now had the chance to
reveal its fullest potential, harnessing all its talent, in a unified civic
society, working together
Evaluating commemoration and generational transmission of the special
Robert M. Hendershot
other examples discussed above, these too have proliferated as Anglo-American friendship intensified in the twentieth century. To list but a few examples, the birthplace of Thomas Paine was marked in Thetford, Norfolk in 1909, the estate of George Washington’s English ancestors was commemorated in Northamptonshire in 1921, the childhood home of Jennie Jerome (later Lady Randolph Churchill) in Brooklyn, NY, received a bronze plaque in 1952, and the birthplace of American naval hero John Paul Jones was honored at Arbigland, Scotland in 1953. 42 Rather than emphasizing
rightful rulers of Britain. Henry VII even named his eldest son Arthur, having seen to it that he was born in Winchester, sometime home of Arthur’s Round Table. When the union was made between Scotland and England in 1707, the country was renamed Great Britain, the reason given being that this was what it had been called before Brutus divided it into England, Wales and Scotland (Thomas 1971 : 416–417). 9 Here we have an example of how, in Europe, these genealogies were key political assets into the eighteenth century.
Indeed, making such use of history was the
Twentieth-century Germany in the debates of Anglo-American international
lawyers and transitional justice experts
Britain conducted by British barristers who had been appointed for the purpose, but had been not under oath, 27 and a couple of diaries taken from fallen or captured German officers and soldiers. Although there was growing suspicion in the commission that Scotland Yard had also presented a couple of murky cases to them, Bryce nevertheless followed the recommendation of the Attorney-General and refrained from subjecting the given material to a comprehensive test by interrogating or cross-examining Belgian witnesses. In the end, Bryce seemed to have become a hostage of
British African origin care about the continent and lobby for attention. This is also reflected in the devolved administrations, with the Welsh Assembly developing its own aid projects in Lesotho and Somaliland and the Scottish Parliament in Malawi and Uganda (Anyimadu, 2011 ).
Trade and investment
As regards economic interests, these are meaningful but by no means vital. Figures from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) show UK total exports to Sub-Saharan Africa valued at $11.6 billion in
‘content’ on the other. Devolution policies, which began in the late 1980s, naturally caused further rethinking of history curricula that led to, among other things, England’s adoption in 1991 of its first ‘National Curriculum’ for history. (In England, the main battlefields are curriculum reforms rather than textbook production partly because of the existence of multiple examination boards who often recommend different textbooks.) Suffice it to say, curricula in the United Kingdom are being transformed yet again in the wake of both the Scottish independence referendum
George Washington and Anglo-American memory diplomacy,
production arm of the London Midland and Scottish Railway Company developed a film about ‘Washington Country’ (aimed at American tourists), 141 while two years later the BBC collaborated with CBS to air a special Independence Day broadcast from Sulgrave, a feat repeated again in 1941. 142 Soon after, and with the two English-speaking peoples again joined as allies in another global conflict, Washington Country received yet more visits from a new generation of American pilgrims, many of whom wore the uniform of Uncle Sam. 143 Hardly surprising that in the post-1945