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Welfare, identity and Scottish prisoners-of-war in England, 1650–55
Chris R. Langley

‘So necessarie and charitable a worke’ Chapter 11 ‘So necessarie and charitable a worke’: welfare, identity and Scottish prisoners-sofwar in England, 1650–55 Chris R. Langley O n 3 September 1650 the English army, led by Oliver Cromwell, routed the Scottish force of David Leslie just south of Dunbar. In the aftermath of the battle, Commonwealth army leaders secured much of the Scottish baggage train and captured a significant proportion of the Scottish army.1 Receiving the news in London, the English MP Bulstrode Whitelocke described the total nature of the

in Battle-scarred
The past, the present and the future
Alistair Leanord

This chapter explores, from a senior participant observer perspective, the emergence of recent policy in infection control in Scotland, and the ways in which this differs in England. With specific reference to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), it considers the reasons why policy and implementation can lag behind knowledge about infection control. It begins with an account from Scotland in 2002 which traces the following fifteen years during which infection control became a priority area for government

in Germs and governance
Victorian middle-class attitudes towards the healthcare of the working poor
Amy W. Farnbach Pearson

render the ‘cure’ of impairment socially as well as medically significant, engendering social disability and the stigma of impairment. This process will be investigated through case studies drawn from two major Scottish voluntary hospitals, Glasgow Royal Infirmary (GRI) and the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (RIE). Scotland was influential in developing and disseminating the medical developments of the Victorian era. For example, Scotland led the British Isles in adopting the new stethoscope, 4

in Disability and the Victorians
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David J. Appleby and Andrew Hopper

, neighbours and relatives to take up arms against each other, with the result that ‘all the obligations of friendship, and Nature lie cancel’d in one another’s blood’.2 The fighting became increasingly vicious in the years that followed. In 1646, after a series of reversals, Charles I surrendered to a Scottish Covenanter army gathered around Southwell in Nottinghamshire, and ordered all his followers to lay down their arms. He was eventually handed over to the English Parliament, but, although a prisoner, was able to divide his enemies and provoke a new civil war in 1648

in Battle-scarred
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Katherine Fennelly

, wealth, and labour – epitomised in The Wealth of Nations, a foundational text on political economy by Scottish economist Adam Smith ( 1776 ; Tarlow 2007 : 22). In his book, Madness and Civilisation , Michel Foucault goes further to situate the change in thinking about lunacy within a more general ‘Great Confinement’: the separation and institutionalisation of those who could not contribute to the new industrialising economy ( 2006 : 43). The scale of the new state-sponsored institutions and their aesthetic gravitas and monumentality supports Foucault

in An archaeology of lunacy
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Infection and occupational illness in British hospitals, c. 1870–1970
Claire L. Jones

two in Scotland – the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (RIE) and Glasgow Royal Infirmary (GRI). These hospitals, with their large patient and staff populations and experimental practices aligned with medical instruction, were of course atypical among British medical institutions. General hospitals outnumbered teaching hospitals (of which there were twenty-four in England and Wales by 1911) twenty-five times over. 5 Nonetheless, these four hospitals are important. Not only did these hospitals consistently contain among the largest populations of staff and patients

in Germs and governance
Author: Alannah Tomkins

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Christine E. Hallett

-of-hand. Elsie Inglis, a doctor and the founder of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals, is famously reported to have offered fully equipped and staffed hospitals to the British Army in 1914, but to have been told to ‘go home and keep quiet’.1 She went on to supply highly effective units to the military medical services of several countries, including France and Serbia. Several ‘freelance’ operations found their way to both Western and Serbian fronts during the early months of the war. But these were organised and funded by wealthy – often aristocratic – ladies and operated under

in Nurse Writers of the Great War