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Douglas J. Hamilton

During the eighteenth century, Scotland experienced a series of profound economic, social, cultural and political changes. Industry and agriculture were transformed, moving Scotland from a relative economic backwater (in European terms) to a country that witnessed innovations in agricultural and industrial production able to rival those anywhere on the globe. Fostered by

in Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world 1750–1820
Opportunity or exile?
Author: Marjory Harper

Emigration from Scotland has always been very high. However, emigration from Scotland between the wars surpassed all records; more people emigrated than were born, leading to an overall population decline. This book examines emigration in the years between the two world wars of the twentieth century. Although personal persuasion remained the key factor in stimulating emigration, professional and semi-professional agents also played a vital part in generating and directing the exodus between the wars. Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The book investigates the extent to which attitudes towards state-aided colonization from the highlands in the 1920s were shaped by the earlier experiences of highlanders and governments alike. It lays particular emphasis on changing and continuing perceptions of overseas settlement, the influence of agents and disparities between expectations and experiences. The book presents a survey of the exodus from lowland Scotland's fishing, farming and urbanindustrial communities that evaluates the validity of negative claims about the emigrants' motives vis-a-vis the well-publicized inducements offered through both official and informal channels. It scrutinizes the emigrants' expectations and experiences of continuity and change against the backdrop of over a century of large-scale emigration and, more specifically, of new initiatives spawned by the Empire Settlement Act. Barnardo's Homes was the first organization to resume migration work after the war, and the Canadian government supervision was extended from poor-law children to all unaccompanied juvenile migrants.

Angela McCarthy

Between 1815 and 1930, central and western Europe experienced unprecedented mobility with an estimated 60 million people leaving for overseas shores. 1 Among those leading the charge, per head of population, were Ireland and Scotland. Indeed, throughout the nineteenth century Ireland consistently topped the league table of emigration from Europe while Scotland did so in the inter-war period. 2

in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840
Stephen Howe

Few spots in Scotland carry such an emotional and historical charge as does the Lake of Menteith in Perthshire. On an island in the lake (which is reportedly the only place in the country to bear that name, rather than ‘loch’) stand the evocative ruins of the thirteenth-century Augustinian Inchmahome Priory. Robert the Bruce knew this place, as

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
Graeme Morton

commissioned by the Scottish government looked to determine how many people claimed an ancestral relationship to Scotland. With the end of empire the focus had shifted beyond Britain’s former or remaining overseas territories, and the investigators surveyed worldwide to estimate anything between 28 million and 40 million people choose to name their descent from the Scottish homeland. 3 What precisely

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
John M. MacKenzie

years after David Livingstone’s death it became the powerful myth underpinning the outburst of missionary enterprise in Africa, embracing all denominations, but perhaps particularly associated with Scottish missions, prominently in Nyasaland/Malawi. 2 Livingstone’s congregationalism and his openness to a diversity of Christian churches ensured that his heroic leadership was

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
Eric Richards

Colonial misadventure The Darién project was the infamously aborted Scottish colony in the Isthmus of Panama in the late 1690s. It is commonly regarded as the disastrous precipitant of the Union of Scotland and England in 1707, and has ever since been the subject of nationalist controversy. The Darién adventure was financed and organised from Edinburgh and Glasgow, with

in Imperial expectations and realities
Gordon T. Stewart

their economic, political and verbal jousts with their fellow-Britons in Dundee? The ‘romance’ of the title may simply reflect the sentimentality often associated with the expatriate experience. Wallace, like many leading figures in Calcutta jute, was fond of Scottish verse, perhaps inspired by the whisky-filled celebrations of Robert Burns’s birthday which was faithfully marked every January in

in Jute and empire

The relationship between Scotland and the British Empire in the twentieth century was wide-ranging. This book represents ground-breaking research in the field of Scotland's complex and often-changing relationship with the British Empire in the period. The contours of Scottish intercontinental migration were significantly redrawn during the twentieth century as a consequence of two world wars. The book reveals the apparent means used to assess the complexities of linking places of birth to migration and to various modern attempts to appeal to ethnic diasporas. The strange case of jute brings out some paradoxical dimensions to Scotland's relationship with England and the empire in the twentieth century. The book argues that the Scottish immigrants' perceptions of class, race and gender were equally important for interpreting the range of their experiences in the British Columbia. The mainstay of organised anti-colonialist critique and mobilisation, in Scotland lay in socialist and social democratic groups. The book examines how the Scottish infantry regiments, and their popular and political constituencies, responded to rapidly reducing circumstances in the era of decolonisation. Newspapers such as The Scotsman, The Glasgow Herald, and the Daily Record brought Africa to the Scottish public with their coverage of Mau Mau insurgency and the Suez Crisis. The book looks into the Scottish cultural and political revival by examining the contributions of David Livingstone. It also discusses the period of the Hamilton by-election of 1967 and the three referenda of 1979, 1997 and 2014 on devolution and independence.

Author: Angela McCarthy

Recent studies of the Irish and the Scots in New Zealand have pointed to the prevalence of social networks for migrants. This book argues that discrimination, even when experienced, was not a precondition for the ethnic consciousness felt by and ascribed to the Irish and Scots in New Zealand. Rather, most aspects of their ethnic identities were positively constructed and articulated. It contends that overarching narratives of exile had little significance in the development of Irish and Scottish ethnic identities in New Zealand. The book looks at the ways in which Irish and Scottish migrants and their sense of Irishness and Scottishness been examined in studies of the diaspora. A sense of being Irish or Scottish is explored, along with identifications such as Highlander, Lowlander, Northern Irish, and Southern Irish, Britishness; New Zealand identities are also considered. The book highlights the range of sources from which we can obtain some insight into the use of and attitudes towards the Irish and Scottish languages and accents in New Zealand. A range of elements including music, festivals, food and drink, and dress is considered to examine the material tokens of Irish and Scottish ethnicity. Religious and political identities were also important aspects of Scottishness and Irishness. A range of national characteristics is examined among the migrants and their descendants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Views of New Zealand and its indigenous Maori population are further ways in which Irish and Scottish migrants conveyed aspects of their identities.