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Abstract only
Marina Dekavalla

and social media particularly served as platforms for grassroots politics to flourish and challenge the ‘old’ media establishment (Law, 2015). However, as stressed in many parts of this book, no political debate on any platform takes place in a vacuum and there is significant interpenetration of discourses in different parts of the public sphere. Thus much of what was talked about on mainstream ‘old’ media was also the topic of conversation on social media, as seen in ­chapter 3. Digital media however operate in different ways from mainstream news organisations. The

in Framing referendum campaigns in the news
From starving children to satirical saviours
Rachel Tavernor

The development of social media sites, such as Facebook (founded 2004) and Twitter (founded 2006), has changed humanitarian non-governmental organisations’ (NGOs) media practices and subsequently altered the ways that supporters and publics are engaged. 1 This chapter focuses on a recent movement for NGOs to humour humanitarianism to achieve visibility on social networks

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Laura Suski

and intensive model of parenting, affects a more universal and collective call for a global international humanitarianism. While social media provides opportunities to share and discuss information about toy safety, it will be argued that emotion is an important part of humanitarian mobilisation, and that the emotions of consumption are often thwarted by the identity politics of consumption

in Global humanitarianism and media culture

This collection interrogates the representation of humanitarian crisis and catastrophe, and the refraction of humanitarian intervention and action, from the mid-twentieth century to the present, across a diverse range of media forms: traditional and contemporary screen media (film, television and online video) as well as newspapers, memoirs, music festivals and social media platforms (such as Facebook, YouTube and Flickr). The book thus explores the historical, cultural and political contexts that have shaped the mediation of humanitarian relationships since the middle of the twentieth century. Together, the chapters illustrate the continuities and connections, as well as the differences, which have characterised the mediatisation of both states of emergency and acts of amelioration. The authors reveal and explore the significant synergies between the humanitarian enterprise, the endeavour to alleviate the suffering of particular groups, and media representations, and their modes of addressing and appealing to specific publics. The chapters consider the ways in which media texts, technologies and practices reflect and shape the shifting moral, political, ethical, rhetorical, ideological and material dimensions of international humanitarian emergency and intervention, and have become integral to the changing relationships between organisations, institutions, governments, individual actors and entire sectors.

Abstract only
Stacey Gutkowski

This chapter analyses how hiloni millennials have experienced what has been called religionization of the Israel Defence Forces over the past 20 years. It argues that for this generation, serving as IDF conscripts and reservists during and after the 2005 Disengagement, two things have become clear. First, that army service during this period has helped shape both millennial hiloni and Jewish identity post-Oslo. Second, despite bitter recriminations between political left and right on social media, the frequency of wars post-Oslo has reinforced Jewish national solidarity, across religious lines. It provides new interview data with young hilonim as well as teachers in mechinot (pre-army colleges), speaking about Jewish identity education in the IDF.

in Religion, war and Israel’s secular millennials
Cinema, news media and perception management of the Gaza conflicts
Shohini Chaudhuri

Minister’s Chief Spokesperson Mark Regev on how killing children squared with the stated aim of ‘Operation Protective Edge’ to protect Israeli people. 11 A major part of what made the 2014 conflict seem different was widespread use of social media as a tool for exposure of violence against Palestinians, without the usual editorial filters. Social media filled in some of the gaps of mainstream coverage, often

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Thomas Prosser

the means by which ideas spread, classic means of diffusion prevailed. These included newspapers, public meetings and local political parties; in ensuing decades, radio and television would become important. Though such mechanisms remain crucial, recent changes have been transformative. Social media is key. 29 The influence of institutions such as Facebook and Twitter can be overstated, particular classes always grouping together, yet there are vital implications for articulation between class and ideas. Social media has quickened political socialization. Not only

in What’s in it for me?
Susanne Martin
Leonard Weinberg

As David Kilcullen would have it, contemporary terrorism is often a key element in what he defines as ‘hybrid’ warfare. The new social media, the old mass media, increasing urbanization throughout the world and the proximity of the major cities to vital waterways have helped to create situations in which new wars combine guerrilla warfare, urban guerrilla tactics, terrorism and the adroit use of the media to pose challenges that are difficult to defeat. Leftist conflicts in Central and South America, the Middle East, and India and Pakistan offer illustrations.

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Imaging the human body in drone warfare
Svea Braeunert

art and activism make use of satellite views for similar reasons when trying to come to terms with the drone campaign. They include James Bridle’s social media site Dronestagram (2012–2015) and his digital photo series Watching the Watchers (since 2013), as well as Josh Begley’s iPhone App Metadata (since 2012) and his interactive map (2014). What these works have in common is their aim to counter secrecy by revealing the hidden structures of the US military and its clandestine wars, which find their material footprints in the sites of drone

in Drone imaginaries
On Skynet, self-healing swarms and Slaughterbots
Jutta Weber

now buys this […] Enough to kill half a city, the bad half’, because it ‘allows you to separate the good guys from the bad’. 23 The drones are equipped with face recognition software to follow and kill selected targets – according to their social media profiles, for example. With this new weapons system, the CEO claims, ‘nuclear is obsolete’. 24 The rest of the video develops two main scenarios in which sitting members of parliament and hundreds of politically engaged students are lethally attacked by drone swarms that have been released by unknown actors. At

in Drone imaginaries