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The authors investigate the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of wider-scale warfare. Unlike the great wars found in modern history, the dominant form of warfare in recent years has become internal. The main actors are non-state groups seeking to replace an existing political order through violent means. Terrorism, especially indiscriminate attacks on unarmed civilians, has been an important component of these groups’ tactical repertoires. The purpose of this study is to explore variations in the timing of insurgents’ use of terrorism within the context of war. The authors draw on the largely separate literatures on terrorism and warfare as well as complementary sources of data on terrorist events, insurgent groups, and various forms of armed conflict. The product of this analysis is a mapping of the frequencies of terrorist attacks over time and the identification of these attacks as occurring during the beginning, middle, or ending stages of wider-scale warfare. This is followed by in-depth discussions of the insurgent groups whose use of terrorism matches each of these patterns as well as the contexts within which these groups operate. Readers of this book will include students, scholars, policy-makers, members of the military, and the general public.

Authors: Lee Jarvis and Michael Lister

This book explores how different publics make sense of and evaluate anti-terrorism powers within the UK, and the implications of this for citizenship and security.

Since 9/11, the UK’s anti-terrorism framework has undergone dramatic changes, including with the introduction of numerous new pieces of legislation. Drawing on primary empirical research, this book examines the impact of these changes on security and citizenship, as perceived by citizens themselves. We examine such impacts on different communities within the UK, and find that generally, whilst white individuals were not unconcerned about the effects of anti-terrorism, ethnic minority citizens (and not Muslim communities alone) believe that anti-terrorism measures have had a direct, negative impact on various dimensions of their citizenship and security.

This book thus offers the first systematic engagement with ‘vernacular’ or ‘everyday’ understandings of anti-terrorism policy, citizenship and security. Beyond an empirical analysis of citizen attitudes, it argues that while transformations in anti-terrorism frameworks impact on public experiences of security and citizenship, they do not do so in a uniform, homogeneous, or predictable manner. At the same time, public understandings and expectations of security and citizenship themselves shape how developments in anti-terrorism frameworks are discussed and evaluated. The relationships between these phenomenon, in other words, are both multiple and co-constitutive. By detailing these findings, this book adds depth and complexity to existing studies of the impact of anti-terrorism powers.

The book will be of interest to a wide range of academic disciplines including Political Science, International Relations, Security Studies and Sociology.

Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

5 Terrorism and extremism Since September 2001, the struggle against international jihadist terrorism all across the globe has become a defining security paradigm of the twenty-first century. Even the most remote and neglected corners of the earth have become caught up in the fight, and the African landscape is now an inescapable—and increasingly critical—part of this new security equation. Without a doubt several areas of the continent have become the new foci of African and international efforts to combat the rising tide of international jihadist and extremist

in African security in the twenty-first century
Language, politics and counter-terrorism
Author: Richard Jackson

This book is about the public language of the 'war on terrorism' and the way in which language has been deployed to justify and normalise a global campaign of counter-terrorism. It explains how the war on terrorism has been reproduced and amplified by key social actors and how it has become the dominant political narrative in America today, enjoying widespread bipartisan and popular support. The book also explains why the language of politics is so important and the main methodological approach for analysing the language of counter-terrorism, namely, critical discourse analysis. Then, it provides the comparison drawn between the September 11, 2001 attacks and World War II and the attack on Pearl Harbor. One of the most noticeable aspects of the language surrounding the attacks of September 11, 2001 is its constant reference to tragedy, grievance and the exceptional suffering of the American people. The book focuses on the way in which language was deployed to construct the main identities of the protagonists. It demonstrates how terrorism is rhetorically constructed as posing a catastrophic threat to the American 'way of life', to freedom, liberty and democracy and even to civilisation itself. The book analyses how the administration's counter-terrorism campaign has been rhetorically constructed as an essentially 'good' and 'just war', similar to America's role in World War II. Finally, the book concludes that responsible citizens have a moral duty to oppose and resist the official language of counter-terrorism.

Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

1 The “new” terrorism in warfare What role will terrorism play in twenty-first century warfare? While there is evidence that wars are changing, the reasons for and consequences of these changes remain largely unknown. This study represents an effort to better understand changes in the conduct of wars and implications of these changes. In the pages that follow, the first task involves specifying the meanings of terms such as “terrorism” and “insurgency.” The chapter continues with a discussion of changes in the uses of terrorism over time, not only with regard to

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Insurgents’ use of terrorism at the initial stages of conflict
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

3 Terrorism as a leading ­indicator: insurgents’ use of terrorism at the initial stages of conflict Our initial concern is with terrorist activity carried out during the early stages of an armed conflict. We hope to measure the extent to which this activity is a precursor or leading indicator of a widening insurgency. We begin this effort by discussing the reasons terrorists may fail to produce insurgency. In these cases, the terrorists (or would-be insurgents) used terrorism as an initial tactic in what would equate to the early stages of their insurgent

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Historical trends and contemporary issues
Lee Jarvis and Michael Lister

This is not a temporary emergency requiring a momentary remedy, this will last far beyond the term of my life. (Sir Vernon Harcourt, 1883, speaking of the threat from Fenian terrorism, cited in Staniforth 2013 : 3) Despite the recent – and particularly post-9

in Anti-terrorism, citizenship and security
Richard Jackson

THE ‘WAR ON TERRORISM’ is the most extensive counter-terrorist campaign in history and the most important conflict since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Its scope and expenditure of resources are so great that in a few years it could soon rival the cold war. In trying to make sense of this new historical era, there is a temptation to focus solely on its most visible

in Writing the war on terrorism
Lee Jarvis and Michael Lister

In preceding chapters, we explored the different ways in which citizens conceive of security and insecurity, and the ways in which anti-terrorism powers are interpreted and evaluated by UK publics, including in relation to their impacts on aspects of citizenship. In this chapter, we now bring these analyses together, examining the relationship between conceptions or

in Anti-terrorism, citizenship and security
Lee Jarvis and Michael Lister

There are, as we have seen, numerous reasons to take public understandings, experiences and discussions of anti-terrorism powers more seriously than has been the case to date. In the first instance, doing so offers opportunity, as argued in Chapter 1 , for thinking through efficacy and impact in this particular area of security policy. It also, as outlined in Chapter 2

in Anti-terrorism, citizenship and security