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The British television director Alan Clarke is primarily associated with the visceral social realism of such works as his banned borstal play, Scum, and his study of football hooliganism, The Firm. This book uncovers the full range of his work from the mythic fantasy of Penda's Fen, to the radical short film on terrorism, Elephant. The author uses original research to examine the development of Clarke's career from the theatre and the ‘studio system’ of provocative television play strands of the 1960s and 1970s, to the increasingly personal work of the 1980s, which established him as one of Britain's greatest auteur directors. The book examines techniques of television direction and proposes new methodologies as it questions the critical neglect of directors in what is traditionally seen as a writer's medium. It raises issues in television studies, including aesthetics, authorship, censorship, the convergence of film and television, drama-documentary form, narrative and realism.

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The blind side of Basque terrorism
Ann Davies

5 A ciegas: the blind side of Basque terrorism A ciegas, the last of the Basque trilogy, again foregrounds a female protagonist against the backdrop of a violent Basque reality with the story of an ETA terrorist who rebels against ETA and flees with her son from the armed struggle. Like its predecessors, the film gained a showing at a film festival, as a contender for the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. Carlos Roldán Larreta (1999: 360) describes the film’s presence in the festival as an important triumph for the director; although it got a cool

in Daniel Calparsoro
Docudrama on film and television

Docudrama has become centrally important not only in television production but also in film. They require pre-production research and this is a key marker of difference between docudrama and other kinds of drama. In its emphasis on personality, modern docudrama adheres to a US 'made-for-TV movie' mode that Todd Gitlin has described as ' little personal stories that executives think a mass audience will take as revelations of the contemporary'. This book outlines the main legal and regulatory issues that concern docudrama. The sheer proliferation of words and phases coined to categorise forms that mix drama and documentary is in itself remarkable. Phrases, compound nouns and noun coinages have been drawn mainly from four root words: documentary, drama, fact, and fiction. The book discusses the form's principal codes and conventions to which people in a media-literate environment respond, and that they recognise prior to categorising what they watch. Cultures are living things, condensing around 'key words'. Such words mark out points of interest, contestation and anxiety. Griersonian documentary actively embraced an artfulness always likely to be at odds with the recording of 'actuality'. The history of factual drama replays in microcosm the essential differences in emphases between the British and American television systems. Societies under threat from shadowy 'terrorist' organisations offered new templates for the docudramas that eventually fuelled 1990s 'co-pros' of interest to audiences on both sides of the Atlantic. The current spectrum of 'intergeneric hybridisation' in film and television can be represented graphically.

London River and Des hommes et des dieux
Gemma King

, Arabic and English not as a tool for dividing groups, but for transcending such divisions. Both films tell tragic stories of innocent people killed in acts of terrorism, yet the focus of each film is far less on the attacks or the terrorists’ ideologies, and far more on the crosscultural relationships built between victims and broader members of the multicultural communities in question as the attacks’ repercussions create waves through local communities. Both Des hommes et des dieux and London River feature different linguistic and ethnic groups which initially appear

in Decentring France
Dave Rolinson

Form and narrative in the 1980s 3 In this chapter I discuss Clarke’s work in the 1980s, addressing his themes and approaches and the ideological ramifications of his style and experimentation with narrative. The first section covers various productions in the period between Beloved Enemy and Road, the second section looks at his plays on terrorism and Northern Ireland, PsyWarriors, Contact and Elephant, and the third section focuses on his final production, The Firm. Throughout, I draw attention to the way that Clarke dissected the political climate of the 1980

in Alan Clarke
Rosa Linda Fregoso

women across various social backgrounds in their opposition to state terrorism and patriarchal nationalism. The narrative emphasis of Las Madres on the process of ‘radicalisation’, rather than ‘victimisation’, proves inspirational for viewers around the world, for it exemplifies how middle-aged women cultivated a collective politics and channelled their own personal pain

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
Social contexts in L’Inchiesta and Risen
Fernando Gabriel Pagnoni Berns
Emiliano Aguilar

the anni de piombo (years of lead), a period of socio-political turmoil in Italy that lasted from the late 1960s into the early 1980s, marked by a wave of political terrorism. The bleak climate favoured a serious degradation of civil rights and preventive detention, rather than real effectiveness in distinguishing between good and bad, between who was guilty and who was innocent. In brief, while divine justice trumps human justice in Risen , corrupted human justice trumps divine justice in L’Inchiesta . In this chapter, we will point out the ways in which

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
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Sam Rohdie

Drama Bertolucci had worked with the cinematographer Vittorio Storaro for nearly twenty years but for La tragedia di un uomo ridicolo in 1981 he chose a different cinematographer, Carlo di Palma. He explained the break from Storaro thus: I wanted a very sharp image. Vittorio is never truly sharp. His way of lighting comes from a school which uses very little light … This film concerned the absolute blurring of the question of terrorism in Italy. One didn’t understand anything. The story was very hazy. I thought it was necessary to counterbalance that with a very

in Film modernism
Parvati Nair
Julián Daniel Gutiérrez-Albilla

be able to understand differently those wider cultural conflicts. The specific conflicts tackled in Part II have to do with competing and conflicting notions of national identity, such as the case of Basque nationalism, whose most violent manifestation has been for many decades the acts of terrorism carried out by the Basque separatist group referred to as ETA, the violent conflicts between the Colombian government and

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
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Chris Beasley
Heather Brook

degradation, consumer-capitalism, and biopolitics’ (Dendle, 2007: 45). In a similar vein, Nicole Birch-Bayley argues that twenty-first century Fearsome monsters 107 zombie movies reflect ‘anxieties about world events … [particularised as] a fear of terrorism and epidemic in the zombie form’ (2012: 1137), while Kyle William Bishop notes that the two most recent peaks in zombie movie popularity coincided closely with the Vietnam War, and the events of 9/11 in New York and Washington (2010: 9, 13; see also Dendle, 2007: 53; Muntean and Payne, 2009). While it may be

in The cultural politics of contemporary Hollywood film