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Leslie C. Green

of national liberation, and Protocol II 16 additional to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. Moreover, Article 3 common to those Conventions 17 already sought to impose minimal humanitarian considerations even in such conflicts. However, acts of violence committed by private individuals or groups which are regarded as acts of terrorism, 18 brigandage, or riots which

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

eventually became involved, was involved in any international or non-international conflict. Rather they were there as part of the ‘war against terrorism’, and then to maintain the new administration until it was able to do this on its own. Similarly, in 2003 the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq, alleging that the government there was building weapons of mass destruction and had to be stopped

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

or preventive reasons may be seen from the contention of President George W. Bush of the United States in calling for international support during the ‘war’ on terrorism in 2001 and, especially, for his operations against Iraq based on the assertion that Iraq had or was about to develop nuclear or other weapons of mass destruction. A number of primarily Western states, particularly the United Kingdom

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

Territories , 125, 127–8. This volume contains a number of papers relating to the Israeli-occupied territories. In December 1992 Israel expelled some 400 Palestinians, accusing them of being members of Hamas and supporters of terrorism. Lebanon refused to admit them and they remained camped out in ‘no man’s land’ between Israel and Lebanon. It was only after protests by the Security

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Abstract only
Their commencement, effects and termination
Leslie C. Green

regarded themselves as neutrals or not, must comply with the sanctions being imposed against Iraq. When President George W. Bush of the United States declared ‘war’ against terrorism after the aerial attacks against New York and Washington, he asserted that those who were not supporting the United States in this activity were in fact against the United States, although no punitive action was taken against states

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated’. 70 Any such act, particularly by the authorities, will remove the immunity enjoyed by the zone but an individual act of terrorism or assassination by a civilian inhabitant will not have that effect

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Abstract only
Leslie C. Green

tribunal applying recognised principles of regular judicial procedure, which are those normally regarded by Western states as conforming with their concept of due process. 50 A protected person may be punished only for acts that he himself has committed, and collective punishments directed or threatened against a community are forbidden, 51 as are acts of terrorism, intimidation and

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Leslie C. Green

the ‘war’ against terrorism. However, the United States has consistently described those held by it in Afghanistan as ‘enemy combatants’ and now agrees that they are to be treated in accordance with the Geneva Conventions The same hesitancy to talk of a ‘conflict’ in the legal sense seems to be true of the operations in Iraq, even though the activities directed against the intervening forces as well

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Abstract only
Leslie C. Green

or non-existence of a State of Palestine’, ICRC, Dissemination No. 13, May 1990, and ‘Palestine’ was not then included in the published list of states parties. See also Green, ‘Terrorism and armed conflict: the plea and the verdict’, 19 Israel Y.B.H.R. (1989), 131, 149–150, 165–6. With the adoption in 2006 of Protocol III to the Geneva Conventions, amending the list of

in The contemporary law of armed conflict