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Mark Webber

-European character, as all were adjuncts to members more properly situated in geographic Europe. The opportunity afforded by the end of the Cold War did not lead to greater precision. Article 49 of the TEU (as amended by the Treaty of Nice) refers to geographic eligibility for membership in essentially the same terms as the Treaty of Rome. The EU has, in fact, been unwilling to define the borders of Europe (and thus

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
Sweden as an EU member state
Christine Agius

, 2000). The Treaty of Nice (2001) kept to the use of QMV on military and defence decisions, without prejudice to the security and defence policy of member states (European Union, 2001). 7 Delanty rather scathingly dismisses such symbolic gestures, claiming that ‘the cultural apparatus of the new

in The social construction of Swedish neutrality
Mark Webber

judge. When accession negotiations commenced in 2005, these rules were based on the 2001 Treaty of Nice. On this basis, Turkey’s large population (bigger than all EU member states with the exception of Germany) means that it would have a sizeable impact as a member in view of provisions for QMV in the EU Council of Ministers. A particular concern, however, has been in respect of those areas – such as

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
Christian Kaunert

attained by the EU, rather than a collection of member states. Second, decision-making authority rests with the Council of Ministers, an institution of the EU, rather than the member states as a group. Third, a change introduced by the Treaty of Nice, Article 24(2), provides for instances where a qualified majority voting shall be used in the Council for any measures implementing decisions adopted for purposes other than

in European internal security
Christian Kaunert

choice of strategy in the negotiations. He conducts a comparative study across six different EU treaties and across the three EU Institutions, i.e. the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council Secretariat. The treaties examined are: (1) the Single European Act, 1986; (2) the Treaty of Maastricht, 1992; (3) the Treaty of Amsterdam, 1997; (4) the Treaty of Nice, 2000; (5) the

in European internal security
Projecting force into an uncertain world
Emil Kirchner
and
James Sperling

principle grew out of the notion of ‘enhanced cooperation’ and was given constitutional status with the 2001 Treaty of Nice; it allows states to opt out of individual decisions without inhibiting or blocking the desire of the other members to move forward. In other words, it pushes decision-making forward by providing a feasible alternative to the unit veto still available in Pillar II without

in EU security governance
Meeting the challenge of internal security
Emil Kirchner
and
James Sperling

addition to the mutual recognition of judicial decisions, the member states also agreed on the need for enhanced judicial cooperation, an objective facilitated with the creation of a European Judicial Cooperation Unit (Eurojust) in 2002. The 2001 Treaty of Nice provided the constitutional basis for enhancing judicial cooperation; in the framework decision creating Eurojust, the Council of Ministers

in EU security governance