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Christian Kaunert

attained by the EU, rather than a collection of member states. Second, decision-making authority rests with the Council of Ministers, an institution of the EU, rather than the member states as a group. Third, a change introduced by the Treaty of Nice, Article 24(2), provides for instances where a qualified majority voting shall be used in the Council for any measures implementing decisions adopted for purposes other than

in European internal security
Christian Kaunert

choice of strategy in the negotiations. He conducts a comparative study across six different EU treaties and across the three EU Institutions, i.e. the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council Secretariat. The treaties examined are: (1) the Single European Act, 1986; (2) the Treaty of Maastricht, 1992; (3) the Treaty of Amsterdam, 1997; (4) the Treaty of Nice, 2000; (5) the

in European internal security
Projecting force into an uncertain world
Emil Kirchner
and
James Sperling

principle grew out of the notion of ‘enhanced cooperation’ and was given constitutional status with the 2001 Treaty of Nice; it allows states to opt out of individual decisions without inhibiting or blocking the desire of the other members to move forward. In other words, it pushes decision-making forward by providing a feasible alternative to the unit veto still available in Pillar II without

in EU security governance
Meeting the challenge of internal security
Emil Kirchner
and
James Sperling

addition to the mutual recognition of judicial decisions, the member states also agreed on the need for enhanced judicial cooperation, an objective facilitated with the creation of a European Judicial Cooperation Unit (Eurojust) in 2002. The 2001 Treaty of Nice provided the constitutional basis for enhancing judicial cooperation; in the framework decision creating Eurojust, the Council of Ministers

in EU security governance