Search results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for :

  • "Turkestan" x
  • Manchester International Relations x
  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Sagarika Dutt

and music and a new language, Urdu, which is a mixture of Persian, Arabic,Turkish and local vernaculars of Sanskritic origin. Many Hindu and Muslim scholars studied each other’s religions, while the common people co-existed peacefully. The rule of the Delhi sultans and of the last Lodhi ruler, Ibrahim Lodhi, was ended by Babur, a Chaghtai Turk from Turkestan and a descendant of Timur and Ghengiz Khan, in 1526 AD. Thus began the rule of the Mughals. Babur was succeeded by his son Humayun, who in turn was succeeded by his son Akbar, the greatest of the Mughal rulers

in India in a globalized world
Ayla Göl

Afghans to sign the Soviet–Afghan Treaty in March 1921. The continued Soviet support for Enver could harm the new status quo in the East.81 Enver was himself dissatisfied with the new Turkish–Soviet status quo when he arrived in Bukhara at the beginning of November 1921. He decided to work for the liberation of Turkestan by uniting the local dissidents, rather than by continuing his uncertain role as a communist agent.82 It was believed at the time that the British government was providing him with ammunition, arms and money.83 When he joined the Basmachi movement

in Turkey facing east
Ayla Göl

, was especially troublesome due to both sides’ claims on the six provinces in Eastern Anatolia, as will be discussed later. 3. The desperate policies of the Ottoman Empire: For Enver Pasha, the main decision-­maker of the expansionist Ottoman foreign policy, the unstable Caucasus provided the best opportunity to undertake his ambitious plans. If Russia’s weak position in the region continued, the Ottomans would expand their power to Transcaspia and Turkestan and then they would manipulate the pan-­Islamic 3 H U M A e la id by t pprox ma i Pre s i W M E

in Turkey facing east
Ayla Göl

the oil in Baku provided and what he would have taken from anyone’ under the right circumstances.104 Second, with German help Enver would have the opportunity to eradicate Russian power in the Caucasus in order to capture the Turkic-­speaking lands of the Russian Empire, especially Azerbaijan and Turkestan.105 Consequently, taking command of the Ottoman third army on 21 December 1914, Enver attacked the Caucasus plateau. Following his catastrophic defeat at Sarıkamış in 1915, Russia invaded Eastern Anatolia in 1916. Despite the weak position of the empire, Enver

in Turkey facing east
Ayla Göl

, TKP).28 At this meeting, a decision was taken to transfer the centre of the party to Anatolia in order to help the anti-­imperialist nationalist movement in the short term and to establish a socialist order in the long term.29 From an ideological point of view, this party could serve the Bolsheviks in spreading communism to Turkey. Consequently, the Ankara government had to be cautious about Bolshevik aims in that they would consider putting Turkey, like Turkestan and Azerbaijan, under Red Army control and had decided to control local communist movements in Anatolia

in Turkey facing east