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Conflict with minorities
Terry Narramore

sought independence and, after an aborted attempt in 1933, established an East Turkestan Republic (1944–49). 23 These experiences, however limited, provided inspiration to later calls for independence from the PRC state. 24 Although the fractured Republican period allowed Tibet and Xinjiang greater scope to develop nationality claims, neither of the major parties contending for state power gave

in Violence and the state
Matt McDonald

Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) a ‘terrorist organisation’, in what was widely perceived as a quid pro quo for Chinese support in the broader ‘war on terror’ ( Lam, 2002 ). The Malaysian government has also proved eager to define political repression as part of the ‘war on terror’, introducing a series of restrictive measures under an

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Irene Chan

activities by the international community. Terrorism was later redefined as a politically motivated crime against the Chinese state in the 1998 revision of the Chinese Criminal Law. Du claims that this redefinition marked China's earliest understanding of terrorism, and that it conformed to the international community's early cognition of terrorism. 47 Generation stage (1991–2001) During the generation stage, the external influences of political Islam, Pan-Turkism and the dissolution of the Soviet Union brought about the creation of the East Turkestan

in Non-Western responses to terrorism