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Valletta, Rangoon and new capitals
John M. MacKenzie

. The provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim were taken after the first Burmese War in 1824; Lower Burma in 1852 after the second, and Upper Burma after the third in 1885. A major centre was developed after each war: Moulmein in the Tenasserim panhandle (now Mawlamyine), Rangoon on the Rangoon river, one of the arms of the delta of the Irrawaddy (now Ayeyarwaddy), and Mandalay in the north.19 The British transformed these three into significant colonial cities, overlaying, but not entirely obliterating, indigenous settlements as they did so. The former Moulmein, capital

in The British Empire through buildings