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Edward Ashbee

Vietnam War proved, at least partially, to be a turning point. Like other post-war military ventures, it had been an undeclared war and it was waged on the basis of presidential authority alone. However, the harsh realities of a military quagmire in South East Asia and the diminution of the powers of the president under the weight of the war’s growing unpopularity triggered increasing efforts to rein in presidential authority. In 1972, Congress passed the Case–Zablocki Act, which required the Senate and House Foreign

in US politics today (fourth edition)
Kevern Verney

, including general overviews by Brenda Gayle Plummer, Penny M. Von Eschen and Michael L. Krenn. 34 Other researchers chose to address more specific issues. Carol Anderson examined the dilemmas posed for the United Nations by the black freedom struggle. In Fighting on Two Fronts ( 1997 ) historian James E. Westheider focused on the experiences of African American servicemen in the Vietnam War, while Jonathan Zimmerman looked at black Peace Corps volunteers in Africa in an article for the Journal of American History . In Toward the Beloved Community ( 1995 ) religious

in The Debate on Black Civil Rights in America
Systems and structures in an age of upheaval
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

apparently not understood the appeal of human rights. The idea that the CSCE’s mentioning of rights and freedoms would fire the political ambitions of the Soviet public and help bring the Soviet empire to its knees was a possibility far beyond their wildest imagination. Blows to the US hegemony The Vietnam War proved to be very costly for the USA. It was a burden on the US economy and a drain on its foreign reserves. Also, it undermined America’s prestige. The war made the USA look militaristic and mean, and exhausted the enormous goodwill that the

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Jack Holland

: For a brief period, the living dead served as a handy Rorschach test for America’s social ills. At various times, they represented capitalism, the Vietnam War, nuclear fear, even the tension surrounding the civil-rights movement. Today zombies are almost always linked with the end of the world via the ‘zombie apocalypse’, a global pandemic that turns most of the human population into beasts ravenous for the flesh of their own kind. But there’s no longer any clear metaphor. While America may still suffer major social ills – economic inequality, policy brutality

in Fictional television and American Politics
Stanley R. Sloan

; we cannot buy them with money.” 15 The conservative Republicans focused on two principal issues: whether it was appropriate for the United States to deploy substantial ground forces to Europe as part of an integrated Atlantic defense structure, and whether the president could, without congressional authorization, deploy American troops overseas—the “war powers” question that later returned to prominence with the Vietnam War and has remained a sticking point between subsequent US administrations and Congress. The war powers issue was pointedly raised by Senator

in Defense of the West (second edition)
Bill Jones

. Presidential elections cost huge amounts of money; some estimate the Bush–Kerry contest of 2004 to have cost $2 billion (a small fraction of that would be spent in Britain on an election campaign). Most of the money goes on television advertisements. There are official limits to spending in the United States but they are easy to circumvent: for example, ostensibly ‘independent’ bodies spring up to sponsor ‘attack ads’ like the ‘Swift Boats Veterans’ which undermined John Kerry’s record as a Vietnam war hero; Kerry had similar groups working for him and in both cases there

in British politics today
Robert J. McKeever

1971, in the so-called Pentagon Papers case ( New York Times v. United States ). The Pentagon Papers were a secret Defense Department history of US policy-making on the Vietnam War. They revealed that the government had used secrecy to deceive the country about the aims and extent of US involvement in Vietnam. They were leaked to the New York Times , which duly published a first instalment. At that point, the Nixon administration tried to prevent any further publication. A 6–3 majority of the Justices, however, ruled that the First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom

in The United States Supreme Court
Sean W. Burges

as major geopolitical priorities such as the Korean War, the Vietnam War and, most recently, the two wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. All of this is played out in public with Brazilian politicians finding rhetorical attacks on the US to be a convenient method of bolstering domestic political support. Within the halls of government the picture is more complicated. Where the US stumbles, blockages often stem from simple ignorance about the policy priorities and logic in Brazil; along the Esplanada in Brasília there are strong bureaucratic factions, especially within

in Brazil in the world
Conor Gearty

not a place where torture has ever been officially contemplated. This is to put it mildly and – contra the idealists like Senator John McCain – ahistorical. Torture has directly and through its proxies been integral to U.S. foreign policy since the Vietnam War. Mechanisms of no-touch torture based on sensory deprivation and self-inflicted pain were developed as part of the Phoenix program during that conflict and were then exported to Latin America and Asia under the guise of police training programs. 32 The School of Americas based in Panama from 1946 until 1984

in ‘War on terror’
Abstract only
Stanley R. Sloan

following is in their own interest. Leadership is not bestowed automatically, particularly among nation states. To get loyal followers, the leader must choose paths followers are willing and able to travel. The United States has provided such leadership most of the time since World War II. The fact that the United States was the leader of “the West” was unchallenged, even if the quality of that leadership was frequently questioned, for example during the Vietnam War and, more recently, in response to the US invasion of Iraq. But there was no country that could challenge

in Transatlantic traumas