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Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

’ personnel bearing that same emblem, based on the Swiss flag, in homage to the country hosting the conference. The Geneva Conventions have evolved, filling out with each successive conference, and their scope has been broadened to include the shipwrecked (1906), prisoners (1929) and civilian populations (1949). ‘Additional protocols’ were adopted in 1977, in the wake of the wars of decolonisation and the Vietnam War, to cover ‘irregular’ forces in domestic conflicts. The original

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

aspirations of the casualties of the attempt to create one world in the image of liberal freedom. Resistance was often futile or at least hugely costly (think of Vietnam). Wars were waged for decades to ensure no part of the system could harbour an economic model or an ideological commitment that was antithetical to the liberal capitalist consensus or refuse to open up its resources to the needs of the international market ( Robinson, 1996 ). Take, for example, Henri Dunant, the patron saint of modern humanitarianism, who was actually at Solferino

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

, these references also lead us into the global 1960s. It is only partly true that Biafra was the first postcolonial conflict that was discussed as a genocide – but the way these references worked changed with Biafra. Already before the American war in South East Asia, what is usually called the Vietnam War was then described as possibly genocidal. This was something that many New Leftists at least were concerned about. Some of their leading figures and intellectuals associated

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Jonathan Colman

sterling was renewed by the influx of $1 billion in credits from foreign central banks. 71 The Commonwealth Peace Mission on Vietnam A Foreign Office analysis from June 1965 examined the Vietnam War in the context of the Anglo-American relationship. It began by noting that British ‘direct involvement’ in Vietnam ‘is insignificant. Our major interest in the situation in Indochina is to see that it does not

in A ‘special relationship’?
Jonathan Colman

From January to April 1965 the character of the Wilson–Johnson relationship traversed the spectrum from discord to cordiality. Discord erupted over the Vietnam War when Wilson telephoned Washington in the early hours of 11 February to suggest to Johnson an urgent visit to the White House. Wilson later claimed that he wanted to see the President to try to ensure that there was no dangerous escalation

in A ‘special relationship’?
Sources of anti-Americanism
Mitchell B. Reiss

the Vietnam War and what they viewed as American imperialism. Those who are ‘reflexively pro-American’ are far fewer and less able to counter the voices of anti-Americanism. To recap, there are important systemic changes that promote and encourage a greater prominence and higher profile for the United States in world affairs, due largely to American military, economic and diplomatic primacy. They require the United States to play a larger role than before as a provider of regional and international security, at a time when many of the old rules are changing, but new

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
John F. Kerry

before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, asking the unanswerable question: ‘How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?’ His opposition to the Vietnam War was as patriotic and principled as his participation in it had been. In short, he knew the perils of both war and peacemaking. Elected as a Senator from Massachusetts in 1984, he maintained and broadened his interest in international affairs through his membership of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, of which he was later to become Chairman. In 2004, Kerry became the Democratic Party

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Screening war in Kosovo and Chechnya
Cerwyn Moore

, but it does little to offer a reading of war not conditioned solely by this form of technological superiority. Nor does it shed light on the emergence of armed resistance movements within the context of globalisation. It is for these reasons that I break from both of these writers. Nonetheless Der Derian, following Virilio, does point to the importance of another aspect of compression which is of interest here – that is the interface between war and its coverage through the news media. The Vietnam War, the first so-called ‘televised war’, demonstrated the then

in Contemporary violence
Fulvio Attinà

security issues by building regional co-operation systems. In Europe, the nations of the European Economic Community responded to the crises that in the early 1970s transformed global and regional politics – like the end of the Bretton Woods monetary regime, the oil shocks following the Six-Day War in the Middle East and the end of the Vietnam War with the consequent reshuffling of the US policy in Asia – by deepening the economic integration process and by starting the process of harmonisation of the national foreign policies. In the 1969 The Hague Summit of the Heads

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Abstract only
Alternative approaches to violence in International Relations
Cerwyn Moore

, organised and inter-state themes. Alternatively, it could be suggested that wars are not primarily inter-state and are also very rarely fought by similar forces using similar tactics; rather they are more commonly fought by asymmetrical forces, often explored in accounts of ethnic and civil war18 which are not organised hierarchically. However, this form of war implies a changing location of political violence in relation to the state. Of course it is true that sub-state violence is not new – for example the Vietnam War was fought amongst the civilian population

in Contemporary violence