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Textual representations
Editor: Angela K. Smith

The changes in warfare during the twentieth century could be addressed from a variety of perspectives, political, cultural, and national. This book addresses the issue of how gender is constructed by exploring a range of historical events. It also asserts that a focus on gender, rather than producing a depoliticised reading of our culture, offers an informed debate on a range of political issues. The book explores the impact of warfare on women whose civilian or quasi-military roles resulted in their exile or self-exile to the role of 'other'. The book first draws upon a number of genres to use Richard Aldington and H. D. (the poet Hilda Doolittle), to understand the social and cultural implications of warfare for both parties in a relationship. Then, it examines the intricate gender assumptions that surround the condition of 'shell shock' through a detailed exploration of the life and work of Ver a Brittain. Continuing this theme, considering the nature of warfare, the gendered experience of warfare, through the lens of the home front, the book discusses the gendered attitudes to the First World War located within Aldous Huxley's novella 'Farcical History of Richard Greenow'. Wars represented in Western cinema are almost universally gendered as male, which corresponds to the battlefield history of twentieth-century warfare. As this situation changes, and more women join the armed services, especially in the United States, a more inclusive cinematic coding evolves through struggle. The book considers three decades of film, from the Vietnam War to the present.

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Heroism, masculinity and violence in Vietnam War narratives
Angela K. Smith

battle, successful action carried out against an enemy, has been an integral part of the way masculinity has been constructed for generations. A simple paradigm, perhaps, but complicated when viewed from the early twenty-first century. Discussing this, the helicopter pilots in Robert Mason’s Vietnam War memoir Chickenhawk ( 1984 ) articulate an interesting paradox. 2 They call themselves ‘chickenhawks’. The metaphor, a hybrid of

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century
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Angela K. Smith

testimonies come from the women’s branches of the armed services. But, Bennett argues, military status was not necessary; the Battle of the Atlantic was all-encompassing. However, in the later years of the twentieth century the numbers of women in the military seem to have grown. Chapter 9 illustrates the confusion often experienced by women in the Vietnam War. They could be soldiers in the armies of either the

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century
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Family, gender and post-colonial issues in three Vietnam War texts
Marion Gibson

is exporting his domestic troubles to Vietnam. 13 Susan Jeffords, writing in the late 1980s, said that ‘Vietnam [war] representation is only topically “about” the war in Vietnam … Its true subject is the masculine response to changes in gender relations in recent decades, its real battle that of the masculine to dominate and overpower its “enemy” – the feminine.’ 14 Coetzee’s story makes a similar

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century
Christopher Lloyd

. Ordinary Affects . Duke University Press , 2007 . Sturken , Marita . Tangled Memories: The Vietnam War, the AIDS Epidemic, and the Politics of Forgetting . University of California Press , 1997 . Sykes , Rachel . “ Reading for Quiet in Marilynne Robinson's Gilead Novels .” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 58 . 2 ( 2017 ): 108

in Marilynne Robinson
Gender adaptations in modern war films
Jeffrey Walsh

struggle. Three decades of film, from the Vietnam War to the present, will be considered in this essay. Despite the growing US archive of women’s writing about their overseas involvement in the Vietnam War, no such active American female presence is visible in US cinema treating the conflict. Women’s writing signifies the contribution made by the serving 15,ooo American women, equally divided between

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century
Hawai‘i One Summer (1987/1998)
Helena Grice

warrants – indeed demands – critical attention as providing an additional, previously unconsidered, perspective upon this renowned writer. Maxine moved to Hawai‘i with her husband Earll and their young son, Joseph, in 1967, ‘in despair’ as Kingston remembers in ‘War’ ( HOS , p. 15). Initially this move was intended to escape the Vietnam War and the draft, but, as the Kingstons found to their dismay, this was less than easy: ‘Hawai‘i had its own problems, and with the presence of the military here, the Vietnam War was even more real on these

in Maxine Hong Kingston
Helena Grice

in life. 2 In drawing attention to the messiness of the Vietnam War – its lack of a neat ending – Kingston is following a by-now established and widely acknowledged scholarly view. 3 For instance, in Vietnam: Anatomy of a Peace , Gabriel Kolko writes: All wars profoundly transmute social and human realities, and it is only with this pervasive truth in mind that we can begin to comprehend the whole course of Vietnam’s history, not only over the thirty years of the war but, above all, after it ended in 1975. There

in Maxine Hong Kingston
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Passing and writing in The White Boy Shuffle and The Human Stain
Sinéad Moynihan

physical and psychical debility that, as a process, it may itself lead to ‘suicidal despair’ (p. 20). However, a written document – as evidence or testimony – can function as a means of exposing and avenging foul play which has led to death (the murder of Iris Silk, as Coleman perceives it). By the end of the novel, ironically, it is Zuckerman who seeks, through the act of writing, to ‘clear [Coleman’s] name’ and ‘criminalize’ his murderer. The most poignant juxtaposition of text and death in the novel is the Vietnam War Memorial. Unlike other

in Passing into the present
Open Access (free)
Don’t Ever Wipe Tears Without Gloves as a reparative fantasy
Anu Koivunen

families and the imaginary national family denied. In this manner, the epic –​like Angels in America –​ depathologised ‘gay men as a class’ (Savran, 1995:  227) and, instead, pathologised the national past. In her study of the politics of remembering and nation-​building, Marita Sturken (1997:  14) compares the AIDS epidemic to the Vietnam War, arguing that these two historical moments have profoundly affected cultural memory. In her analysis, they have both disrupted ‘previously held popular beliefs about the United States’ as well as experiences of nationality. Gardell

in The power of vulnerability