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Thinking, feeling, making
James Paz

But send thou to Hygelac, if the war have me, The best of all war-shrouds that now my breast wardeth, The goodliest of railings, the good gift of Hrethel, The hand-work of Weland. Tale of Beowulf , trans. William Morris 1

in Dating Beowulf
Teresa Phipps

’ lists of commercial rule breakers. The records of these presentments and fines offer an alternative perspective on women’s interaction with the law arising from their commercial life, illustrating how their activities were documented, regulated and policed ‘from above’. This provides an insight into how women’s work, trade and production were understood by civic authorities, in contrast to the personal pleas brought revealing disputes between peers or trading contacts. There was usually no process for responding to or

in Medieval women and urban justice
Words, ideas, interactions

Riddles at work is the first volume to bring together multiple scholarly voices to explore the vibrant, poetic riddle tradition of early medieval England and its neighbours. The chapters in this book present a wide range of traditional and experimental methodologies. They treat the riddles both as individual poems and as parts of a tradition, but, most importantly, they address Latin and Old English riddles side-by-side, bringing together texts that originally developed in conversation with each other but have often been separated in scholarship. The ‘General Introduction’ situates this book in its scholarly context. Part I, ‘Words’, presents philological approaches to early medieval riddles—interpretations rooted in close readings of texts—for riddles work by making readers question what words really mean. While reading carefully may lead to elegant solutions, however, such solutions are not the end of the riddling game. Part II, ‘Ideas’, thus explores how riddles work to make readers think anew about objects, relationships, and experiences, using literary theory to facilitate new approaches. Part III, ‘Interactions’, explores how riddles work through connections with other fields, languages, times, and places. Together, the sixteen chapters reveal that there is no single, right way to read these texts but many productive paths—some explored here, some awaiting future work.

Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

uncover the articulation of gender roles despite the problem of the disjointed nature of the narrative. Second, it has shown that conceptions of lordship were gendered and that the construction of gendered modes of behaviour was ultimately inclusive of noblewomen, since property relations underpinned the exercise of power. Third, the book argues against simplistic explanations of the way that twelfthcentury society worked, and urges that the dynamics of society can be full understood only when the role and place of women are fully integrated within the analysis. The

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

. Heslop, like Chassel, has begun the important task of placing seals into their sociocultural contexts and has, for example, studied the Virgin Mary’s regalia in terms of its production and varied meanings.9 In particular he warned of the difficulties in analysing the iconography of Romanesque seals of twelfth-century England. His work which has discussed the development of seal iconography has done much to distinguish the way that broader artistic and cultural changes affected seal iconography, use and design. Thus, for example, he related the iconography of croziers

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

than a detailed analysis of the image of women in all twelfth-century literary sources. One necessary omission, therefore, is the satirical work of Walter Map. The genre in which he worked, unlike those of the other authors treated here, tended to limit him to presentations of the most extreme gendered stereotypes of women, without the need to accommodate their involvement in lordship and politics. For example, we have extreme cases of sexual incontinence by nuns, the abject submission of a loyal wife, and the use of sexual insults in a stereotyped attack on a

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

influence in shaping the reputation and literary form of the saint’s life. Female patronage of literature may well have affected the popularity of texts such as Geoffrey of Monmouth, and noblewomen were in the vanguard of patronising new literary forms. Further it is possible that some noblewomen were not merely passive commissioners of such work; the examples of Alice de Condet and Constance fitz Gilbert show that some twelfth-century women of the nobility were able to read and participate in the production of literature. As such they were able to exert lasting cultural

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
The Rotuli de Dominabus et Pueris et Puellis de XII Comitatibus of 1185
Susan M. Johns

similar pattern to the Pipe Rolls and the 1166 171 noblewomen and power Cartae Baronum. It is significant that the conception of hierarchy within the document is not so dominated by gender as the initial findings might imply, but gender itself worked with hierarchy to determine how noblewomen were portrayed. The above discussion has focused on the development of surnames and by-names and has illustrated the complexities involved in analysing them. The rolls allow us an unusually direct and comprehensive insight into the pattern of forenaming among women in noble

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Susan M. Johns

Maitland, ‘it may look like an oath; we may think it implicitly contains all the essentials of an oath; but no relic or book or other thing is sworn upon and no express words of imprecation are used’. Affidation was a personal act which further strengthened the intent of the donee and was part of a ceremony to ensure the security of the gift. Indeed, Fowler noted that the affidation worked to ensure no future claims on the land by the parties or to warrant the land and that an ‘affidation in the hand’ was an ‘ancient and solemn formality . . . by which a man placed his

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Abstract only
Dame Jinty Nelson . . . An appreciation
Paul Fouracre and David Ganz

Inauguration in Early Medieval Europe. From dux populi to athleta christi’ . Although she almost never refers to this work, and certainly never sought to publish it, it remains an outstanding treatment of the subject. Importantly, the research gave her an understanding of the political resonance of the liturgy in the early Middle Ages and a thorough grounding in that intellectually rigorous scholarship

in Frankland