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David Hardiman

Female missionaries, supported by male Indian assistants, sustained much of the clinical work of the Bhil mission. Jane Birkett and Margaret Hodgkinson were the wives of ordained missionaries, but others, such as Helen Bull and Rowena Watts, were single women. In her history of American women missionaries Dana Robert has shown that until the mid-nineteenth century, women were to a large

in Missionaries and their medicine
The Manchester Jewish Refugees Committee, 1939–1940
Bill Williams

7 ‘The work of succouring refugees is going forward’: the Manchester Jewish Refugees Committee, 1939–1940 The decisive factor which drew provincial communities into the more systematic rescue of refugees was the escalating number of those seeking entry to Britain following the Anschluss (March 1938), the German occupation of the Sudetenland (October 1938), the Kristallnacht pogrom (9 November 1938), the British Government’s decision to facilitate the entry of unaccompanied children on the Kindertransport (21 November 1938) and the German annexation of Bohemia and

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
A Christian modernity for tribal India
Author: David Hardiman

In November 1880 the Reverend Charles Thompson arrived at Kherwara, Rajasthan, India, to establish the first Anglican mission to the Bhils, a primitive tribe, by going amongst them as a healer. This book sets out the history of the interaction between the missionaries and the Bhils, a history of missionary medicine, and how certain Bhils forged their own relationship with modernity. During the 1870s, the Church Missionary Society declared its intention to open more missions 'among the non-Aryan hill-people', and the Bishop of Lahore wanted more missions to work amongst the 'aboriginal' Bhils. A great famine that began in 1899 brought radical changes in the mission to the Bhils. After the famine, many of the Bhagats, a local sect, became convinced that the sinless deity was the God of Christians, and they decided to convert en masse to Christianity. The missionaries working amongst the Bhils believed that Satan was in their midst, who was constantly enticing their hard-won converts to relinquish their new faith and revert to their 'heathen' ways. It was argued that 'heathen' beliefs and culture could be attacked only if female missionaries were required to work with native women. Mission work had always been hampered by a lack of funds, and at one time, the hospital at Lusadiya had to dissuade many would-be inpatients from coming for treatment due to lack of beds. The book also deals with the work of the mission in the post-colonial India, which laid more stress to healing than evangelism.

Author: Elliot Vernon

This book seeks to locate the London presbyterian movement in the metropolitan, parliamentarian and British politics of the mid-seventeenth-century crisis. It explores the emergence of the presbyterian movement in London from the collapse of Charles I’s monarchy, the movement’s influence on the parliamentarian political struggles of the civil war and interregnum and concludes by looking at the beginnings of Restoration nonconformity. The work covers the political, intellectual and social history of the London presbyterian movement, looking at the development of ideas of presbyterian church government and political theory, as well as exploring the London presbyterians’ mobilisation and organisation to establish their vision of reforming the Reformation. The work addresses the use of the ‘information revolution’ in the British revolution, analysing religious disputation, the political use of rumour and gossip and the interface between oral and written culture. It argues that the London presbyterian movement, whose participants are often the foils to explorations of other individuals or groups in historical writing, was critical to the dynamic of the politics of the period.

A sixteenth-century response to Reginald Scot’s Discoverie of Witchcraft
Editor: Eric Pudney

This book is the first published edition of a previously unknown manuscript treatise on the theological underpinnings of witchcraft belief in late sixteenth-century England. The treatise comprises a point-by-point response to the most famous early modern English work on witchcraft, Reginald Scot’s Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584). It was written by a personal friend of Scot’s, and internal evidence demonstrates that it offers critical feedback on a now-lost draft version of the Discoverie prior to the publication of that book, providing a rebuttal to Scot’s arguments in much greater detail than any other extant text, and showing precisely why his views were so controversial in their own time. The treatise is also a highly original and sophisticated theoretical defence of witchcraft belief in its own right, and the author’s position is based on detailed scriptural and theological arguments which are not found in any other English writings on the subject. The treatise’s arguments connect witchcraft belief to Reformed Protestant ideas about conscience, the devil, and the correct interpretation of scripture, and demonstrate the broader significance of witchcraft belief within this intellectual framework. It thereby provides evidence that the debate on witchcraft, as represented by the more dogmatic and formulaic printed works on the subject, shied away from the underlying issues which the author of the treatise (in a work never intended for publication) tackles explicitly.

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Michael Carter-Sinclair

against the large Jewish minority of the city, that had been openly espoused by a major political and social force in Vienna – the Christian Social movement. 2 At first glance, the responsibility of the movement for widespread antisemitism might appear unlikely, since many of its principles matched those of centre-right or even liberal groups. Its key figures praised the outlook and work ethic of its base of lower bourgeois supporters. They promoted self-reliance and the creation of charitable and mutual associations, rather than state intervention, as means of

in Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites
Michael Carter-Sinclair

As Peter Pulzer has indicated, antisemitism, ‘pursued for its own sake or as an integral part of a wider political ideology … flourishes only in particular economic and social conditions’ in a post-liberal society. 1 However, organised antisemitism also requires a dedicated and coordinated cohort of activists. In Vienna, this was the Christian Social movement, and this chapter draws together a number of points that have been made in this work about this movement. However, this chapter is not a synopsis of everything that has been written here. For instance

in Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites
A study of the Christian Social movement

Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites engages with and challenges some key narratives of one of the darkest periods in the history of Vienna; the rise and sustained presence of organised, politically directed antisemitism in the city between the late nineteenth century and the middle of the twentieth. Sketching out first the longer-term background, it then focuses on central players in the antisemitic Christian Social movement, which flourished through an ideology of exclusion and prejudice. The work is built on considerable original research into both bourgeois social organisations and activists from the lower clergy, but it also exposes the role played in the development of antisemitism by the senior clergy in Vienna. In addition to a close examination of the antisemitic aspects of the Christian Socials, it analyses how other major social debates in this period impacted on their development as a group: national struggles, especially the desire for German unification; responses to the waves of poverty and social unrest that swept over Europe; and conservative and clerical reactions to modernity, such as liberalism and democracy – debates with a resonance far beyond Vienna. Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites tells its story across this long period, and for the first time in such detail, to give room to the gestation in ‘respectable’ society of antisemitism, an ideology that seemed to be dying in the 1860s, but which was revived and given new strength from the 1880s onwards, even surviving challenges from the more widely known Red Vienna of the 1920s and 1930s.

Michael Carter-Sinclair

‘passivity’ of the senior Austrian clergy with regard to the social and economic policies and actions of the Austrian state, which remained essentially liberal, even under conservative governments in the 1880s and 1890s. This challenge then led the senior clergy, for a number of reasons, to oppose the activism of the lower clergy. 34 The research undertaken for this work does not chime with these conclusions, especially with regard to the opposition that the senior clergy are said to have mounted to clerical activists. This finding, in turn, raises questions about the

in Vienna’s ‘respectable’ antisemites
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decorated with brass figures kneeling in prayer and the coats of arms of Stanley and Ely. It attracted some notoriety because of the stories told of Stanley’s irregular private life. Over the centuries its condition, including the effigy, deteriorated. The local antiquarian John Owen noted restoration work on the tomb in the mid-nineteenth century, work that would have involved the removal and re-fixing of the brass: 1859 Jany 20: This afternoon the slab belonging to the tomb of Bishop Stanley

in Manchester Cathedral