, with an idea of addressing some of the underlying causes, very much the Anglo-American approach. Whereas the francophone approach was much more grounded in the cri du coeur , a moral outrage being expressed. Professionalization and bureaucratization of the organization pushed us to have a logical framework – with goals and targets – to be effective. One sphere was linked to abusesofpower, violence against civilians, etc.; the other sphere was a more generic defense of humanitarian law and principles, like ‘don’t bomb hospitals’ and that kind of thing.
Commissioner of Human Rights, ‘Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993–2003: Report of the Mapping Exercise documenting the most serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law committed within the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between March 1993 and June 2003’, Geneva: OHCHR, August 2010, www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/CD/DRC_MAPPING_REPORT_FINAL_EN.pdf (accessed 21 February 2019).
Most notable is Reyntjens (2013) who provides a detailed chronicle of abusesofpower by the RPF, including human rights abuses.
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye
(1991–2002) was the culmination of decades of alienation and
socio-economic exclusion, and rebel factions directed their anger at representatives
of the ‘rotten system’, including chiefs, as symbols of abusesofpower and the marginalisation of youth ( Peters,
2011 ; Richards, 1996 ).
Questions of legitimacy resurfaced after the war as heated debates emerged around
the reconstitution of the chieftaincy. Despite pre-war abuses, populations