, with an idea of addressing some of the underlying causes, very much the Anglo-American approach. Whereas the francophone approach was much more grounded in the cri du coeur , a moral outrage being expressed. Professionalization and bureaucratization of the organization pushed us to have a logical framework – with goals and targets – to be effective. One sphere was linked to abusesofpower, violence against civilians, etc.; the other sphere was a more generic defense of humanitarian law and principles, like ‘don’t bomb hospitals’ and that kind of thing.
Commissioner of Human Rights, ‘Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993–2003: Report of the Mapping Exercise documenting the most serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law committed within the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between March 1993 and June 2003’, Geneva: OHCHR, August 2010, www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/CD/DRC_MAPPING_REPORT_FINAL_EN.pdf (accessed 21 February 2019).
Most notable is Reyntjens (2013) who provides a detailed chronicle of abusesofpower by the RPF, including human rights abuses.
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye
(1991–2002) was the culmination of decades of alienation and
socio-economic exclusion, and rebel factions directed their anger at representatives
of the ‘rotten system’, including chiefs, as symbols of abusesofpower and the marginalisation of youth ( Peters,
2011 ; Richards, 1996 ).
Questions of legitimacy resurfaced after the war as heated debates emerged around
the reconstitution of the chieftaincy. Despite pre-war abuses, populations
abusesofpower. And it has a potential influence also on Russia and
But all this depends upon Europe acting cohesively, and gaining and
keeping its moral leadership. In the longer run only a cohesive European
effort to promote globally its new value system offers a hope of influencing the US to develop similar values. The same is true in relation to
Russia and, eventually, China.
And time is running against Europe. On present form, within forty
years demography will have reduced Europe’s workforce by one-quarter.
Economic growth cannot be sustained
Displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space during the First World War
Marco Mondini and Francesco Frizzera
, but also to improve their living conditions, often with the
help of private welfare associations.43 To be sure, however, the displaced
population lived for years at a bare subsistence level. In the concentration
camps, the mortality rate was up to 40 times higher than outside.44 Inside
the camps, the abuseofpower was the norm, and the lack of food was
v 187 v
Marco Mondini and Francesco Frizzera
an everyday experience.45 Meanwhile, the refugees in the villages were
confronted with a suspicious local population whose feelings were in
some way justified by the
does not allow secession.
Given the strength of state identities, centre-state relations are not always
harmonious. It is an issue that has sometimes caused rancour. The constitution
had deliberately made the centre stronger than the states to prevent the disintegration of the Indian state. However, this sometimes led to the abuseofpower
such as the arbitrary dismissal of state governments. The problem was that the
political party that was in power at the national level also wanted to be in power
at the state level. Economic liberalization may reduce the financial
out that the consequence of greater openness in the decision-making processes was ‘to make cadre privilege and abuseofpower more transparent than before, and since this is open subversion of the democratic process promised by the committees, it may make cadre privilege appear to be even more illegitimate and intolerable than in the past’ (Walder, 1996: 56).
At the same time, despite tentative movements towards rule-governed order and nominal constitutional guarantees, greater political openness and ‘expanded civil rights of expression
enslavement the victim’s consent is either absent or negated through ‘the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion; the fear of violence, deception or false promises; the abuseofpower; the victim’s position of vulnerability; detention or captivity, psychological oppression or socio-economic conditions’. 206 However, the Appeal Chamber clarified the fact that lack of consent is not an element of enslavement, but is relevant only as evidence to show that the accused has exercised powers attaching to the right of ownership. 207
Party has that much to feel guilty about.’41
Tony Lloyd’s take on it was to suggest that Labour’s traditional support
base reflected people who had not benefited from colonialism.
There are some very odd motivations. I can give you some not very nice
bits: guilt would be one, a European and particularly a British guilt about
Africa, particularly from my party, although ironically we were the Party
that gave the first impetus towards decolonisation … Colonialism in the
past was about the use of power and abuseofpower in order to pursue
advantage for this nation
AbusesofPower Since 9/11’ (n.d.). www.aclu.
org/other/top-ten-abuses-power-911 (accessed 18 July 2016).
5 Taunya Lovell Banks, ‘Mestizaje and the Mexican Mestizo Self: no hay
sangre negra, so there is no blackness’, Southern California Interdisciplinary
Law Journal 15 (2006): pp. 199–234.
6 Ibid., p. 214.
7 Ibid. For more on this, see Martha Menchaca, ‘Chicano Indianism: A
Historical Account of Racial Repression in the United States’, American
Ethnologist 20:3 (1993): pp. 583–603; Moisés González Navarro, ‘Mestizaje
in Mexico During the National Period