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T.K. Ralebitso-Senior, T.J.U. Thompson, and H.E. Carney

In the mid-1990s, the crime scene toolkit was revolutionised by the introduction of DNA-based analyses such as the polymerase chain reaction, low copy number DNA analysis, short-tandem repeat typing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis and variable number tandem repeat. Since then, methodological advances in other disciplines, especially molecular microbial ecology, can now be adapted for cutting-edge applications in forensic contexts. Despite several studies and discussions, there is, however, currently very little evidence of these techniques adoption at the contemporary crime scene. Consequently, this article discusses some of the popular omics and their current and potential exploitations in the forensic ecogenomics of body decomposition in a crime scene. Thus, together with published supportive findings and discourse, knowledge gaps are identified. These then justify the need for more comprehensive, directed, concerted and global research towards state-of-the-art microecophysiology method application and/or adaptation for subsequent successful exploitations in this additional context of microbial forensics.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

Open Access (free)
Duncan Sayer

specific to the period and looks at the local adaptation and use within over one hundred sites. This approach is equally relevant to the mortuary context of the prehistoric Levant, post-medieval USA or the Roman East. In short, the aesthetics of burial, the use of mortuary technologies and their local adaptation, and the exploration of mortuary party attitudes can reveal a complex pluralistic and multi-dimensional past no matter the context to which it is applied. This book has built on a series of published papers to propose an original approach to horizontal

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
Abstract only
Tangible engagements in the making and ‘remaking’ of prehistoric rock art
Lara Bacelar Alves

particularly interesting for the study of past human societies as it is the study of both the past and present relationships between climate and the distribution of living beings on Earth (Aguiar 2008). It incorporates knowledge from sciences like biology, geology, ecology, bioclimatology and phytosociology and one of its fundamental aims is to establish typological hierarchical models of the territory known as eco-regions based on biomes, that is ecological communities sharing climatic conditions and geological features that support species with similar life and adaptation

in Images in the making
Learning from experiment and experience
Rosalind Janssen

to the Petrie Museum and culminating in an end-of-term Deir el-Medina feast or Christmas party around a theme of food and beer preparation. As to the educational significance of this learning experience, a useful model is the adaptation by Chris Watkins and his colleagues (2002) of the classic experiential learning theory (ELT) of David Kolb (1984). Kolb’s learning model comprises a four-stage cycle: Do, Review, Learn, Apply. As such it demands that time is taken for reflection on a learning activity, for, according to Kolb (1984: 38), ‘Learning is the process

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Victoria L. McAlister

warehouse on the ground floor and residence above – and lends credence to the theory that these were merchant-owned tower houses. There is no indication that this was a later adaptation, but rather that they were originally constructed in this manner. The ground floors could also have been rented out to a third party for income ( ibid .). The split levels controlled movement, particularly entry. This has been interpreted as an expression of the built language of privilege and financial wealth ( ibid .). O’Keeffe has described the arrangement here

in The Irish tower house
Catherine J. Frieman

greater detail in Chapter 5 ). Novice inventors keen to create their own inventive things would attempt to recreate a master’s work and, in so doing, learn its affordances and limitations. In subsequent replications, they would then build in their own adaptations, improvements, and other alterations. This is invention via iteration rather than sudden inspiration, an obvious and complex pattern in our tapestry of inventive acts. Interestingly, it is within the realm of the digital – a most contemporary and, supposedly, radically new technological sphere – where the

in An archaeology of innovation
The tower house complex and rural settlement
Victoria L. McAlister

appearance of such settlement is debated. The legacy of the manor was the possession of a borough, with the larger lands tending to be associated with a town (Empey, 1985 ). These manors usually overlapped with the medieval parish, hence the frequent association with churches, and were mainly adaptations from earlier native Irish boundaries and settlements (Otway-Ruthven, 1965 ; Simms, 1988a ). Tower houses in many cases represent continuity of earlier manorial settlement functions. While manors are best associated with the Anglo-Normans, who from the late twelfth

in The Irish tower house
Catherine J. Frieman

) recently arguing that politics and morality are fundamentally outside the scope envisioned for this interpretative method despite their salience to understanding a not insubstantial portion of the population’s lived experience. Ernst Schraube’s ( 2009 ) notion of technology as materialized action offers an important alternative to – or perhaps adaptation of – this approach, in that it accepts that people and things are interconnected and recursively constituted, but deems this relationship asymmetrical because agency rests only with humans. Objects and technologies shape

in An archaeology of innovation
Abstract only
Catherine J. Frieman

which social relationships are created, developed, and maintained through shared practice and knowledge. Indeed, as discussed in the previous section, systems of teaching and learning vary immensely from people to people, craft to craft, and period to period (not to mention class to class, gender to gender, etc.). I highlight the variability and social complexity of apprenticeship in particular because this militates against the rather played-out concept that these are somehow innately conservative systems that do not allow for invention or creative adaptation to

in An archaeology of innovation