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Interpreting ‘patented’ aids to the deaf in Victorian Britain
Graeme Gooday and Karen Sayer

27 1 PURCHASE, USE AND ADAPTATION: INTERPRETING ‘PATENTED’ AIDS TO THE DEAF IN VICTORIAN BRITAIN Graeme Gooday and Karen Sayer Whether there was ever as much reluctance to acknowledge defective sight as there now is defective hearing, whether the mention of spectacles was ever as hateful as that of a trumpet, I do not know; but I was full as much grieved as amused lately at what was said to me in a shop where I went to try a new kind of trumpet: I assure you. ‘Ma’am,’ said the shopkeeper, ‘I dread to see a deaf person come into my shop. They all expect me to

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
Mervyn O’Driscoll

128 6 Germany, Lemass and foreign policy adaptation From a narrow perspective, Dublin’s EEC application in July 1961 became an unavoidable necessity when Harold Macmillan decided to launch a British bid. It followed at least two years of anxious discussion and reflection in Irish government circles about the country’s economic isolation and vulnerable position. The realisation had intensified that the country needed to join a benevolent multilateral trading block. The EEC held particular appeal in the field of agriculture, though no firm decision could be

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73
Jessica Coatesworth

The first 100 years of printing in Europe was a vibrant period full of innovation and adaptation. Continental printers controlled the production of Latin books, many of which were imported into England. English printers worked hard to create an audience for their editions and achieved,this by adopting specific design features from the Latin editions. Yet despite this connection, English printing is often studied in separation from European printing. This article studies the Golden Legend, a hagiographic text popular throughout England and Europe, and shows that the two traditions were interrelated, especially in book design. On the continent, printers found themselves in a crowded marketplace and some adopted established designs to target a particular audience. In contrast, English printers were inspired by the design of continental books. Design was governed by the intended audience but not restricted to national demarcations. Not only was English printing integrated with European printing, it sustained a distinctive character while remaining part of the European tradition.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
T.K. Ralebitso-Senior, T.J.U. Thompson, and H.E. Carney

In the mid-1990s, the crime scene toolkit was revolutionised by the introduction of DNA-based analyses such as the polymerase chain reaction, low copy number DNA analysis, short-tandem repeat typing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis and variable number tandem repeat. Since then, methodological advances in other disciplines, especially molecular microbial ecology, can now be adapted for cutting-edge applications in forensic contexts. Despite several studies and discussions, there is, however, currently very little evidence of these techniques adoption at the contemporary crime scene. Consequently, this article discusses some of the popular omics and their current and potential exploitations in the forensic ecogenomics of body decomposition in a crime scene. Thus, together with published supportive findings and discourse, knowledge gaps are identified. These then justify the need for more comprehensive, directed, concerted and global research towards state-of-the-art microecophysiology method application and/or adaptation for subsequent successful exploitations in this additional context of microbial forensics.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Best friend and ally?

West Germany played a pivotal role in encouraging the Republic of Ireland's adaptation to a 'European' path. This book contends that Ireland recognised that the post- war German economic miracle offered trade openings. It analyses approximately 25 years of Irish-West German affairs, allowing a measured examination of the fluctuating relationship, and terminates in 1973, when Ireland joined the European Communities (EC). The general historical literature on Ireland's post- war foreign relations is developing but it tends to be heavily European Economic Community (EEC), United Nations (UN) or Northern Ireland centred. The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is a worthy candidate for such a study as it was Ireland's key trading partner in continental Western Europe. Germany acted as a dynamic force in Ireland's modernisation from the mid- 1950s. Ireland wanted 'to ride the wave of the future', and the challenge was to adapt. This study of Irish- West German relations offers up a prism through which to reinterpret the shifts in Ireland's international reorientation and adaptation between 1949 and 1973. Like any relationship, even a relatively amicable one, the Irish- West German one was prone to strains. Bitter trade disputes beset Irish- German relations throughout the 1950s. The book sheds new light on post- war Ireland's shift from an Anglo- Irish focus to a wider European one. It also discusses land wars, Nazism, the Anglo- Irish Trade Agreement of 1938, the establishment of a 'new Europe' and Lemass's refurbishment of the Irish development model.

David E. Omissi

their targets were almost always at least partly visible. Aerial photographs give some indication of the material destructiveness of bombing. The opposition encountered, and the loss or damage it inflicted, were carefully recorded. The changing techniques of policing themselves reveal something about the extent and nature of indigenous adaptation. Once bombing had been carried out, political officers

in Air power and colonial control
Abstract only
Jeffrey Richards

, releasing their stars to appear and regarding it basically as a comparatively cheap way of advertising their films to a mass audience. The announcement with which the show now began, ‘Lux presents Hollywood’, emphasized the movie angle and although a sprinkling of plays was still done, the majority of the shows were now adaptations of films, if possible with their original stars but if not possible, with different stars who give us in effect an alternative history of

in Cinema and radio in Britain and America, 1920–60
Jeffrey Richards

a silent version now lost. He was the model for artist Frederick Dorr Steele’s illustrations of the stories in Collier’s Magazine . He was also the first radio Holmes, appearing in an adaptation of The Speckled Band on American radio in 1930. Gillette’s play not only served as the basis of his own 1916 film but – according to the credits – as the basis of John Barrymore’s 1922 film Sherlock Holmes , Clive Brook’s 1932

in Cinema and radio in Britain and America, 1920–60
Accessible knightly masculinities in children’s Arthuriana, 1903–11
Elly McCausland

identified as an ‘everyday heroism’ arising in the later nineteenth century, combining, albeit with tensions, civil and military elements.6 If, as Joseph Kestner contends, the ‘primary if narrow agenda of many adventure texts [is] to model masculinity and interrogate it’, then British and American adaptations of Arthurian adventure for boy readers during the early 1900s sought to simultaneously promote and subtly redefine chivalric masculinity for a modern age.7 In doing so, they retained the imaginative framework of the ‘soldier hero’, but focused on the moral rather than

in Martial masculinities
Swedish towns in a European perspective, eighteenth–nineteenth centuries
Dag Lindström

appropriated and adapted innovative forms of leisure directly from foreign examples. 141 142 Processes of selection and adaptation Figure 7.1  Assemblé och spektakelhuset, Linköping, 1900. Photograph by Didrik von Essen. Didrik von Essens fotosamling, DvE13, Östergötlands museum, Linköping. This chapter considers the national and transnational rise and development of three closely related new leisure practices and their impact on urban space in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Sweden: 1. public entertainments and ­theatres, concert halls and other establishments for

in Leisure cultures in urban Europe, c.1700–1870