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Two years that changed France
Alistair Cole

referendum, the migrant crisis and territorial challenges to the State. The book captures these broader contextual developments, but it does so through the prism of competitive politics played out in France. The book deals with the specifically French angle of the more general phenomenon of rising mistrust in political institutions and political parties and the capacity of political leadership to restore trust. It reviews these phenomena through the prism of institutional adaptation, political and party competition and changing public opinion, which was

in Emmanuel Macron and the two years that changed France
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Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

dialectical model at the basis of Marx’s grand narrative of human history; the adaptations of Marxist theory in Latin America; and finally the enduring question of class consciousness. Marx was born in 1818 in Germany and spent his early adult life in Prussia and France. Paris in the 1840s was a ferment of revolutionary socialist ideas, culminating in the 1848 revolution. Many of Marx’s ideas about history emerged during this period, worked out in conjunction with his life-long collaborator, Friedrich Engels. Raphael Samuel rightly pointed out that Marx’s published

in The houses of history
A critical reader in history and theory, second edition
Authors: Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

Every piece of historical writing has a theoretical basis on which evidence is selected, filtered, and understood. This book explores the theoretical perspectives and debates that are generally acknowledged to have been the most influential within the university-led practice of history over the past century and a half. It advises readers to bear in mind the following four interlinked themes: context, temporal framework, causation or drivers of change, and subjectivities. The book outlines the principles of empiricism, the founding epistemology of the professional discipline, and explores the ways in which historians have challenged and modified this theory of knowledge over the past century and a half. It then focuses upon three important dimensions of historical materialism in the work of Marxist historians: the dialectical model at the basis of Marx's grand narrative of human history; the adaptations of Marxist theory in Latin America; and the enduring question of class consciousness. The use of psychoanalysis in history, the works of Annales historians and historical sociology is discussed next. The book also examines the influence of two specific approaches that were to be fertile ground for historians: everyday life and symbolic anthropology, and ethnohistory. The roles of narrative, gender history, radical feminism, poststructuralism and postcolonial history are also discussed. Finally, the book outlines the understandings about the nature of memory and remembering, and looks at key developments in the analysis and interpretation of oral histories and oral traditions.

Jonathan Gershuny

differential responsibility for unpaid labour as non-employed women, leading to a ‘dual burden’ of paid and unpaid work. The key question that allows us to make the move from sociology to futurology, which was Ray’s original aim for the Sheppey work, is: how does this cross-sectional difference play out in terms of historical change? The SCELI data provided a first chance to answer this question using the retrospective life-history data. I provided (1992, Gershuny et al. 1994 ) a new hypothesis to explain the dual burden phenomenon which I called ‘lagged adaptation

in Revisiting Divisions of Labour
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Andrew Dix

Hollywood and administered by the boorish US producer Jeremy Prokosch. There are uncomfortable biographical parallels here, since the reallife Lang’s own career trajectory took him from German film in the 1920s to the much more tightly regulated Hollywood studio system in mid-century. In Contempt it is actually Prokosch, rather than Lang or Paul, who determines that in order to gain a larger audience share the adaptation of Homer’s Odyssey on which they are all working should include more nudity and be marked by levity rather than epic seriousness. If the resulting

in Beginning film studies (second edition)
Nicky Coutts

question his orientation in the spiritual world. Horizons in the desert can be misleading. Without their instruction on place and the location of the viewer within them, other possibilities for inquiry can take on more prominence. After seeing Pieter Bruegel the Elder's painting The Temptation of St Anthony (1557) Gustave Flaubert laboured for thirty years on a prose adaptation of

in Perspectives on contemporary printmaking
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Sound and music
Andrew Dix

Luhrmann’s adaptation of The Great Gatsby replicates this acoustic sensitivity. If some commentators on the film foreground its visual specificities, such as the computer-generated replicas of 1920s Manhattan or the vertiginous zooms from the tops of skyscrapers, others, in moods variously of exhilaration or distaste, have been quick to fasten upon its sound design. The film’s soundtrack is ceaselessly busy, layering multiple musics (both diegetic and non-diegetic), sound effects, voiceover and – rarely, though suggestively – silence. A comment made in interview by

in Beginning film studies (second edition)
Regina Lee Blaszczyk

era of Paris fashion had begun, and Filene’s could boast that Wilinsky had been present at its genesis. Filene’s French Shops The merchandising staff at Filene’s worked flat out to prepare the store for the new era of French glamour. After years of wartime simplicity, American women hungered for luxury. The North American market for couture originals was minuscule, but upmarket retailers imagined good profits in ready-to-wear adaptations of French designs. Couture did not pay the bills, but it provided an aura of exclusiveness that enhanced the store’s prestige

in European fashion
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A ‘normal’ democracy?
Geoffrey K. Roberts

parties and movements: but the same can be said of France, Belgium, Italy, Austria and many other places. There is a conservatism with regard to institutional change, economic adaptation and social reform that reveals itself in large matters such as the defence of subsidies for uneconomic coalmines, farms and shipyards, and in smaller matters such as limitations on shopping-hours; but British unwillingness to reform its electoral system or the French propensity to engage in street protest periodically in defence of trade union or professional privileges could be cited

in German politics today (third edition)
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Steven Earnshaw

similar problem to that of the English Realist novel when it attempted to tackle subject matter that was deemed unsuitable for a genteel audience. When Charles Reade adapted the French dramatisation of Zola’s L’Assommoir for the English stage ( Drink , 1879), the play underwent significant changes in order to make it palatable. Reade’s version was a great success and spawned many imitators, so much so that Reade had writs issued against a number of other playwrights for infringement of copyright. As Reade asserted, his version was based on a French dramatic adaptation

in Beginning realism