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Interpreting ‘patented’ aids to the deaf in Victorian Britain
Graeme Gooday and Karen Sayer

27 1 PURCHASE, USE AND ADAPTATION: INTERPRETING ‘PATENTED’ AIDS TO THE DEAF IN VICTORIAN BRITAIN Graeme Gooday and Karen Sayer Whether there was ever as much reluctance to acknowledge defective sight as there now is defective hearing, whether the mention of spectacles was ever as hateful as that of a trumpet, I do not know; but I was full as much grieved as amused lately at what was said to me in a shop where I went to try a new kind of trumpet: I assure you. ‘Ma’am,’ said the shopkeeper, ‘I dread to see a deaf person come into my shop. They all expect me to

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
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Dolto in the twenty-first century
Richard Bates

years earlier. This Laforguian way of thinking, with some adaptations, had propelled Dolto to a national platform in the 1970s. But after 2000, Dolto was no longer seen as a unifying national expert, but rather as someone linked to a particular ideological outlook. Discussion of her began to polarise. In 2008, her centenary, the television channel TF1 ran a hagiographical feature-length drama about Dolto, with Josiane Balasko in the starring role. 8 The same year, however, cognitive-behavioural therapist Didier Pleux

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Doltomania
Richard Bates

journalist Guy Baret could write a successful book, Allô maman Dolto , 9 mocking what he termed ‘ doltomaniaques ’ – defined as mothers who dogmatically attempted to apply Dolto’s ideas in all situations, even if it resulted in absurd outcomes. 10 Baret argued that Dolto had become so fashionable that bourgeois mothers were engaging in a form of one-upmanship, seeking to outdo each other in their ostentatiously thorough application of her ideas. A 1994 theatrical adaptation of Allô maman Dolto by Sophie Duprès was a

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Psychoanalysis in interwar France
Richard Bates

a ‘transgenerational unconscious’, arguing that ‘the events which occur in a human being’s family before they’re born, while they are a foetus … are capable of inducing a psychosis in that gestating being’. 34 Rather than an outright rejection of Heuyer’s constitutionalist orientation, this reads like an adaptation of it to the metaphysical level of the unconscious. A second prominent patron of psychoanalysis within French medicine was the psychiatrist Henri Claude, who ran the mental illness clinic ( Clinique des

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

wartime actions: if the Jews’ suffering served a spiritual purpose, then perhaps there was less reason to feel guilty about not having acted to prevent it. Politics of the 1953 split In 1949, the French Communist Party condemned psychoanalysis as a reactionary ideology. Attacking psychoanalysis as essentially conservative, American and capitalist – ‘a technique of adaptation to bourgeois society’ – the party accused analysts of attempting to neutralise political radicalism by medicalising it. 144 For the

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Editor: Claire L. Jones

Drawing together essays written by scholars from Great Britain and the United States, this book provides an important contribution to the emerging field of disability history. It explores the development of modern transatlantic prosthetic industries in nineteenth and twentieth centuries and reveals how the co-alignment of medicine, industrial capitalism, and social norms shaped diverse lived experiences of prosthetic technologies and in turn, disability identities. Through case studies that focus on hearing aids, artificial tympanums, amplified telephones, artificial limbs, wigs and dentures, this book provides a new account of the historic relationship between prostheses, disability and industry. Essays draw on neglected source material, including patent records, trade literature and artefacts, to uncover the historic processes of commodification surrounding different prostheses and the involvement of neglected companies, philanthropists, medical practitioners, veterans, businessmen, wives, mothers and others in these processes. Its culturally informed commodification approach means that this book will be relevant to scholars interested in cultural, literary, social, political, medical, economic and commercial history.

Nitsan Chorev

. The WHO, I argue, often utilized strategic responses instead of complying with or explicitly resisting the neoliberal turn. In the section below I describe what the WHO was able to protect through strategic adaptation. But this strategy is also not without a cost. The case of Ebola tells us about the price paid. Strategic adaptation to neoliberal pressures The WHO was established in 1948 as a specialized agency of the UN. It was considered to be one of the more reputable UN agencies, but its initial experience of the

in Global health and the new world order
From colonial to cross-cultural psychiatry in Nigeria
Matthew M. Heaton

international programmes in cross-cultural psychiatric research over the period from the 1950s to 1970s. Lambo ultimately helped to cement a mental health care paradigm originating from the global North, in Nigeria, in ways that significantly expanded upon the colonial model. However, at the same time he adapted that paradigm to better fit local circumstances, and those adaptations in turn recirculated into the global discourse, affecting the way psychiatrists around the world thought about the nature and treatment of mental illness. The development of mental health

in Global health and the new world order
Valentin-Veron Toma

examined by leading Romanian psychiatrists by comparing them with equivalent practices – and their economic or social contexts – in other European countries. It will be argued that the controversies as well as models of best practice prevalent in other countries became integral parts of work and occupational therapy in Romanian institutions concomitant with the transfer of particular ideas and practices from abroad, and their adaptation to local circumstances. Although a good range of historical accounts of the development of mental institutions has become available in

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.