classical scholarship already filtered through a lens of Christian interpretation. This had a profound effect on his political and ethical theories. His adaptations of Stoic concepts stemmed partially from the context in which he would have encountered them (reading Ciceronian ideas in Augustine, for example), but were also the result of conscious manipulation of his sources to better suit his contemporary intellectual environment and projected readership. Take, for example, the idea of ‘following nature’. John transformed this Ciceronian trope by asserting that life in
the English, but in terms of a broader approach which takes account of ‘cultural adaptation and interaction’. 42 Such an approach is a fruitful way to explore the intricacies of the way that the history of Wales unfolded. More recent work on Marcher liberty in the Shropshire–Powys border which takes account of the elaboration of the English state similarly stresses interaction and resistance to English lordship. 43 Brock Holden also sees the developments of the English state as decisive, and his discussion of the evolution of Marcher society shows that military
account. 15 While the structure of the parish network should be preserved against arbitrary change, and new churches should not be allowed to thrive at the expense of older ones by taking over their tithes, Hincmar accepted that a degree of adaptation was necessary for the parish to be able to fulfil its remit of providing pastoral care.
Such adaptation did not concern only the shape of the parish network either, for the very rules too might evolve. Hincmar acknowledged that issues could arise in his time and place that had not arisen in the
not expect the use of a formula to leap off the page: a degree of
adaptation is presupposed by the very nature of the genre. 12 It is thus in practice
difficult to distinguish actual examples of the use of formulae from
mere coincidences. This does not mean that they were not used: although
they hinder the identification of more precise textual relationships,
what these widely shared expressions and themes suggest, more
’ (whether we regard it as locatively or ideologically defined) permitted the adaptation of neo-Platonism to the goal of developing a mechanistic account of nature, whereby the initial creative activity of God could be distinguished from the secondary causes that continued to animate the world. 9 This achieved what Marie-Dominique Chenu termed the development of a mechanistic, as opposed to a symbolic, understanding of nature – in short, its desacralisation. 10
Thus, Thierry would write in his commentary on De inventione that the study of
warehouse on the ground floor and residence above – and lends credence to the theory that these were merchant-owned tower houses. There is no indication that this was a later adaptation, but rather that they were originally constructed in this manner. The ground floors could also have been rented out to a third party for income ( ibid .). The split levels controlled movement, particularly entry. This has been interpreted as an expression of the built language of privilege and financial wealth ( ibid .).
O’Keeffe has described the arrangement here
children reprinted before the current surge: M. Morpurgo (and M. Foreman,
illustrator), Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (London: Walker Books, 2005).
5 Some of these, including Iris Murdoch’s Novel The Green Knight (London:
Penguin, 1994) and some musical adaptations such as the opera by Harrison
Birtwistle with its libretto by David Harsent, are discussed in B. Windeatt,
‘Sir Gawain at the fin de siecle: Novel and opera’, in D. Brewer and J. Gibson
Salter, Popular reading in English.indd 213
Popular reading in English c. 1400
, and in proportion to his first-hand acquaintance with them.’ 102 Upon his death, as noted, John bequeathed his personal copies of De officiis and De oratore to Chartres cathedral. It is certain that he had access to the first of these titles at the time of composition of his major works, as is demonstrated by the number of occasions upon which he refers to it and his adaptations of the ideas it contains. 103 John’s use of the second of these books in his works, however, is more difficult to reconstruct. While recorded in a number of eleventh- and twelfth
oikeion (appropriate, familiar or belonging to him) and what is allotrion (alien) and prefer the first. This is the basis of a binary division by which all societal goods and impulses can be classed. As Gretchen Reydams-Schils notes, a distinctive feature of the Roman adaptation of Greek Stoicism is its emphasis on social responsibility. 3 While the community was conceived by the Stoics to include gods and men, it started with the individual. Indeed, the term oikeiôsis itself derives from ‘ oikos ’, the ‘household’ – the basic social unit. As the first step, self
a direct adaptation from Justinian’s original Novel 123, only attested in contemporary Frankish manuscripts by a version of its short preface (Paris BnF lat. 3838, 3846): see Kaiser, Epitome Iuliani , p. 423 n.36.
81 See e.g. Lothar II referring to Louis the Pious and Lothar I in Diplomata Lothar II, no. 4, Die Urkunden Lothars I. und Lothars II , ed. T. Schieffer, MGH Diplomatum Karolinorum III (Berlin, 1966), p. 388; Council of Valence, 855, MGH Conc. III, no. 33, p. 358, c. 9: edictum piissimorum augustorum . For Justinian as