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Entrails and digestion in the eighteenth century
Rebecca Anne Barr, Sylvie Kleiman-Lafon, and Sophie Vasset

of bellies’, the last section, ‘Visualising the viscera’, focuses on drawings, engravings and caricatures which used the bowels, 12 Introduction viscera and entrails to articulate political protest, Revolutionary tensions and subversion through scatological aesthetics, or to expose those invisible organs. Barbara Stentz examines the ‘iconography of the belly’, whose protuberant lines were increasingly deployed in Revolutionary satire to depict the excesses and corruption of both the clergy and the aristocracy. Caricature reacted against the smooth lines of

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century

This book seeks to challenge the notion of the supremacy of the brain as the key organ of the Enlightenment. It is done by focusing on the workings of the bowels and viscera that so obsessed writers and thinkers during the long eighteenth-century. These inner organs and the digestive process acted as counterpoints to politeness and other modes of refined sociability, drawing attention to the deeper workings of the self. The book complicates the idea that discourses and representations of digestion and bowels are confined to so-called consumption culture of the long eighteenth century, in which dysfunctional bowels are categorised as a symptom of excess. It offers an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspective on entrails and digestion by addressing urban history, visual studies, literature, medical history, religious history, and material culture in England, France, and Germany. The book explores the metaphorical and symbolic connections between the entrails of the body and the bowels of the city or the labyrinthine tunnels of the mine. It then illustrates the materiality of digestion by focusing on its by-products and their satirical or epistemological manifestations. The book expounds further on the burlesque motif of the innards as it is used to subvert areas of more serious knowledge, from medical treatises to epic literature or visual representation. Finally, it focuses on drawings, engravings and caricatures which used the bowels, viscera and entrails to articulate political protest, Revolutionary tensions and subversion through scatological aesthetics, or to expose those invisible organs.

Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Joris Vandendriessche

This chapter highlights the role of medical societies in the circulation of anatomical objects. It shows how Belgian anatomists used societies to realize one of the most prestigious contemporary medical projects ‒ to give the young Belgian nation its own anatomical collections and traditions. Societies’ networks of correspondents allowed academics such as the Ghent professor Adolphe Burggraeve to expand their academic collections. By donating or presenting anatomical specimens, rural physicians or those from smaller cities received recognition for partaking in scientific study. In the second half of the nineteenth century, these networks changed. On the level of the participants, students and young researchers replaced private practitioners as the main providers of new specimens. In addition, an accurate scientific description was required from these providers to receive credit. Simply donating a specimen was no longer regarded as a sufficient contribution to the sciences. On the level of scientific standards, finally, the ideals of rarity, curiosity and aesthetics became superseded by accuracy and seriality ‒ a shift that reflected the growing importance of quantification in medicine as well as the rise of pathological anatomy as a scientific specialism.

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
Hogarth’s bodies
Frédéric Ogée

the rising new discourse on aesthetics was beginning to propose, it was now deemed more important to understand the work of art than to undertand the artwork,17 and the spectator as receiver was given priority over the artist as conceiver. Beauty did not lie in the artefact but was produced by the spectator’s reception of it. This, as we know, led logically to a profusion of philosophical considerations on the notion and relativity of taste, yet Hogarth, unlike many of his contemporaries (e.g. David Hume, ‘Of the Standard of Taste’ (1757), Alexander Gerard, An Essay

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Prostheses for women in nineteenth-century literature and commerce
Ryan Sweet

prosthesis.22 For instance, he boasts, ‘I have used your make of legs at nearly all kinds of work, such as plowing, spading, hauling logs, and other work. I have walked twenty-​five miles in a single day.’23 Also significant in this image is the fact that the artificiality of the user’s false limb is conspicuous: it is uncovered, foregrounded, and the limb closest to us as viewers. Curiously, the testimonial fails to mention the aesthetics of the prosthesis. Several similar illustrations of and endorsements from working men appear in the A. A. Marks catalogue marking the

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
Rebecca Anne Barr

Phisiological Reveries, where fat is ‘a diseased concretion, a stagnated depose of a superfluity of indigested nourishment’.75 The ‘landskip’ of Mother Sulphur is a form of what Vittoria di Palma has classified as the ‘anti-picturesque’, an instance of the aesthetics of aversive emotion.76 Sulphur’s grotesque expansiveness materialises an environmental-moral hazard and threat to masculine security. The narrator’s disgust blocks further representation, acting as a boundary-forming reflex. It also posits the grotesque female body as the antithesis of beauty and orderly function

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
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Art, pedagogy and politics in Revolutionary France
Dorothy Johnson

Visceral visions my examination of the impetus in Enlightenment France to visualise the interior of the body and to question the relationship of surface to depth (exterior appearance and the covering of the skin to the bowels beneath) as evinced in art and aesthetics as well as in the realms of political, social and biological thought. In particular, I propose to examine a few salient examples that reveal the new importance of depictions of the interior of the body and especially its presence in and significance for Revolutionary France. One of the questions I address

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Narratives beyond the profession and the state
Frank Huisman

imperative of ventilation and cleanliness and the emergence of the block hospital and new management styles: all of them medical imperatives advocated by medical men. In the process, sanitary goals, medical surveillance and cost effectiveness came to prevail over domesticity, aesthetics and religious symbolism, even though religion continued to be very present until well after the

in Medical histories of Belgium
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Katherine Fennelly

’s interpretation of these institutions as mechanisms of state power. This change was marked in management practices as well as aesthetics. The new Bethlem Asylum represented a visual and material shift away from the eighteenth-century urban madhouse. Located on a plantation on a site still on the fringes of the city, the Bethlem Asylum was a new type of institution, where fresh air was as important to the management of the insane as security. The new type of asylum that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century, as articulated in the new Bethlem Asylum, was built after the

in An archaeology of lunacy