, in the humanities and social sciences, and in nearly all the places where the left used to be, progressive internationalism had been supplanted by crude forms of anti-globalisation – almost exclusively anti-Americanism, anti-Zionism and Third Worldism. Left-wing politics had been largely uprooted from conventional class politics. Postmodernist theory and the tropes of the counter-culture had come to stand in for socialism. Radical analysis had given way to the radical-chic. And suddenly, here was a big-screen spectacle, a vividly horrific mass atrocity carried out
of structure to co-ordinate activities during some campaign of very limited duration (to oppose German adoption of the European currency, for instance). It is important to remember that, as in the UK or the USA, thousands of organisations exist which never engage in political activity, and thousands more only do so on rare occasions, when some proposed policy may affect their activities, resources or freedom of action. Others may participate in political action with only a very loose form of organisation, such as the anti-globalisation protests which have taken
as a military band might stir soldiers before battle, and of laying claim to spaces by way of impromptu street parties – a strategy similar to that of Reclaim the Streets anti-road and anti-globalisation protests in the West.
There are several examples of Western rock and pop taking on a political significance in non-Western contexts. Often this is a matter of protestors seeking democratisation of their country in a manner they perceive in the West. Tas ( 2014 ), however, notes that in Turkey, where the government has sought to establish a Western style
The challenge of Dónal Óg Cusack’s ‘coming out’ to heteronormativity in contemporary Irish culture and society
Debbie Ging and Marcus Free
communitarian anti-globalisation. As Cronin ( 2007 ) cogently points out, it is, paradoxically, the GAA’s ostensible rejection of the commodification of its players’ bodies and insistence on amateurism that has proved so appealing to corporate sponsors such as Bank of Ireland, Guinness, Vodafone, ESB and AIB. Indeed, all of the recent television and billboard advertising campaigns for the GAA and its sponsors are underpinned by a vision of Irish masculinity that is deeply communal, rural, anti-individualistic, amateurist and untainted by the excesses of modern consumerism
different locations and how collaboration and sharing material for editing can enable a range of outputs speaking to different audiences.
Meanwhile Irish police were also travelling, to seminars in Britain and Europe where they were told that anti-globalisation protestors were ‘the new terrorists’ and encouraged to react more aggressively. This was manifested at anti-privatisation protests in Dublin and most famously at the May 2002 Reclaim the Streets protest which saw a ‘Garda riot’ on Dame Street, with police batoning bystanders (including people in taxi queues
selecting materials that can be shown to be relevant.
You will have noticed that the student has also thought about how she might want to use this selection to construct her own argument about Occupy. You can see in the extract below, which comes from the middle of the essay, how she goes on to use the concepts and propositions she has identified in Castells’ work directly in relation to Occupy. This helps her build her own argument by a critical engagement with Castells whilst relating these materials directly to the question.
The success of anti-globalisation