was an especially gifted politician’.
1 This is a formal term to identify certain government publications. In the UK ‘“official statistics” [are] all those statistical outputs produced by the UK Statistics Authority’s executive office (the Office for National Statistics), by central Government departments and agencies, by the devolved administrations in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and by other Crown bodies (over 200 bodies in total)’. www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/national-statistician/types-of-official-statistics (accessed 22 July 2015
is not always smooth. Returning to the museums sector as one setting for research communication, there has been a somewhat contentious history in terms of their relationship with visitors and communities, and museums’ central messages for a considerable time related to the authority and instruction of the privileged within society (Bennett, 1995 ). It is worth remembering that museums which developed in the late nineteenth century, whilst ‘intended for the people … were certainly not of the people in the sense of displaying any interest in the lives, habits
participants who recognise and appreciate the considerable power that such roles hold. The social importance of the jury model in law has, then, significantly influenced the public’s view of deliberative processes more widely, bringing a social significance and authority to their influence (Gastil and Richards, 2013 ; O’Mahony, 2013 ).
Beyond this legal setting, a more widespread uptake of deliberative theory emerged in the 1970s and 1980s and subsequently various versions of deliberative democracy have developed. Like many concepts in the field of communication
popularisers, particularly where the emerging scientific community was concerned.
The second half of the [nineteenth] century was, after all, a period when cultural authority was particularly important to the men of science. They were especially keen on pushing clergymen and women out of science, since both were seen to be strong supporters of the Church and as barriers to the establishment of a self-defining community of experts. (Lightman, 2007 : 28)
Consequently, those occupying more religious stances, as well as females, who were increasingly argued not
allowed for the construction of social categories which centralised authority and power for the British administration (Fuller, 1989; Cohn, 1996). Finally, the abolition of Sati by the colonial government represents a change in women’s rights within colonial India (Mani, 1987). However, the failure to include women within official discourses helps to explain why in contemporary Indian society women’s rights have been so slow to progress and transform. Therefore, this essay establishes that while colonialist interactions within India did establish change in the economy
of the main arguments in this research is how the stereotypical representation of male victims impacts heavily on the manner in which authorities deal with cases.’
‘One main factor in my reasoning’s for choosing qualitative research in my approach to this topic was the idea that it allowed me to explore the issues however deeply I wanted to.’
The first three examples (the third of which also illustrates the misuse of ‘affect’ for ‘effect’, for which check the final section of this book) come from an essay with five superfluous apostrophes
research communication, there are some important aspects to bear in mind with regard to Furedi’s argument. Crucially, he is critical of the way that knowledge is now frequently operationalised to appear ‘ordinary’: ‘instead of affirming their authority, the cultural elites appear more interested in appearing relevant, accessible and in touch with popular opinion’ (Furedi, 2004 : 5–6). Intellectuals are therefore increasingly drawn to appear faceless and professionalised, which Furedi argues diminishes the cultural value of their work, their potential to be taken
, 1990 : 7). As such, art might be judged by aesthetic principles or by the moral or political issues it raises, or any number of other criteria the art critic applies. Furthermore, while certain cultural institutions may be recognised as having the authority to determine what is and is not art, such definitions are not accepted by everyone.
Concepts of art are also being challenged by the inclusion of research tools and technology that gainsay the notion of art as a static enduring object (Miller, 2014 ; Kac, 2007 ; Kemp, 2006 ). Miller reports on early
wide range of sources to consult in the design of an ethically sound communication project. Even if you are based in an organisation which does not have an ethical process or applies it only to mainstream research activities, thinking through the ethical aspects of research communication is important.
Ethics ‘is sometimes used to refer to the set of rules, principles or ways of thinking that guide or claim authority to guide, the actions of a particular group’ (Singer, 1994 : 4), and although at times the terms are used interchangeably it is subtly different
, presenting your own deductions, comparisons, contrasts, insights and so forth.
Using evidence in the way we have just described is one of the distinguishing features of scholarly work and represents an implicit claim to authority of a very particular kind. In key respects, journal articles, research reports and books published in sociology represent authors’ answers to their readers’ unspoken questions, such as ‘how do you know?’, ‘why should I accept what you say?’ or ‘why is your interpretation superior to someone else’s?’. This applies just as much at