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Katherine Foxhall

sea were repelled, intrigued, and deeply concerned by the habits and habitat of those in the decks below. As surgeons went to work in these threatening spaces, cabin passengers regarded medical men as allies. In Fell’s diary the surgeon cleans out; in Hood’s he expels. In both accounts the surgeon appears as a figure of authority who imposes sanitary order and reassurance. Socially and politically, surgeons often shared cabin passengers’ beliefs, concerns, and their dining table. This relationship was reciprocal: surgeons expected

in Health, medicine, and the sea
Elisha P. Renne

11 Polio vaccination, political authority and the Nigerian state Elisha P. Renne So I told him [a soldier] that even if they are going to kill me, I will not allow the governor to enter my house … I also said in the governor's presence that even if President Jonathan comes here, I will not allow them to immunize my child. So the governor

in The politics of vaccination
Editor: Howard Chiang

This collection expands the history of Chinese medicine by bridging the philosophical concerns of epistemology and the history and cultural politics of transregional medical formations. Topics range from the spread of gingko’s popularity from East Asia to the West to the appeal of acupuncture for complementing in-vitro fertilization regimens, from the modernization of Chinese anatomy and forensic science to the evolving perceptions of the clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine.

The individual essays cohere around the powerful theoretical-methodological approach, “historical epistemology,” with which scholars in science studies have already challenged the seemingly constant and timeless status of such rudimentary but pivotal dimensions of scientific process as knowledge, reason, argument, objectivity, evidence, fact, and truth. Yet given that landmark studies in historical epistemology rarely navigate outside the intellectual landscape of Western science and medicine, this book broadens our understanding of its application and significance by drawing on and exploring the rich cultures of Chinese medicine. In studying the globalizing role of medical objects, the contested premise of medical authority and legitimacy, and the syncretic transformations of metaphysical and ontological knowledge, contributors illuminate how the breadth of the historical study of Chinese medicine and its practices of knowledge-making in the modern period must be at once philosophical and transnational in scope.

This book will appeal to students and scholars working in science studies and medical humanities as well as readers who are interested in the broader problems of translation, material culture, and the global circulation of knowledge.

Françoise Dolto and her legacy
Author: Richard Bates

In Psychoanalysis and the family, Richard Bates reveals the striking range and extent of the influence of Françoise Dolto (1908–88) – child psychoanalyst and France’s leading authority on parenting and family dynamics from the 1970s onwards.

Against the backdrop of rapid economic, social and cultural change, Dolto emerged as a new, reassuring, national presence. Seen as a national treasure, her views proved influential on a wide range of issues linked to psychology, parenting, education, gender, sexuality, bioethics and children’s culture and rights. Dolto claimed the mantle of a progressive, innovative expert who swept away outdated concepts – but Bates demonstrates that her ideas in fact had deep roots in right-wing, anti-feminist currents. Dolto used her media platforms and the cultural authority of psychoanalysis to ensure that her psychoanalytic vision affected the whole French nation and was implanted in a variety of institutional settings. Bates shows how her vision had lasting repercussions, in areas ranging from the treatment of autism to the organisation of children’s centres.

In demonstrating Dolto’s importance, this highly original, thoroughly researched book makes an essential contribution to historical understanding of twentieth-century French society. It forces a reassessment of the place of psychoanalysis in French social history, showing that its true significance lay well beyond the academic seminar or the consulting room.

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Psychoanalysis in the public sphere, 1968–88
Richard Bates

initiative didn’t work for some parents at all’. 25 In addition to this mixture of often pragmatic, often reassuring, occasionally anxiety-inducing advice, Dolto used the show to promote her vision of the family, in particular stressing paternal authority and heteronormative gender divisions. The nine-year-old thumb-sucker mentioned above was advised to throw herself into housework, so as to ‘really acquire the qualities of a woman in a house’. 26 She dismissed one mother-daughter dispute with the comment ‘I think that, if there

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Popularising psychoanalysis, 1945–68
Richard Bates

can forearm youths against the dangers of sensuality’. 54 Larère’s theological flexibility here, and deference to Dolto’s medico-psychological authority, illustrates the willingness of parts of the postwar church to incorporate psychological expertise, and to set aside the more reactionary interwar attitudes of the high church. Taking advantage of such deference, Dolto continually turned the focus of discussion away from adolescence and onto early childhood, bringing the debate into her domain of

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Doltomania
Richard Bates

and practices. 12 Why did Dolto, an experienced psychoanalyst of children, become someone from whom a lot of French people wanted to hear in the late 1970s and subsequently? What kinds of demand was she responding to? What were the cultural, social and political conditions that enabled her to succeed? A key element of Dolto’s success was that she became the personal embodiment of a societal transition in parenting techniques and ideals – from a vision based on upholding paternal authority, honour, tradition and deference

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

travail obligatoire – STO) in Germany. Some 75,000 French-resident Jews were murdered in the Holocaust; thousands more spent time in concentration camps or in hiding. The postwar recovery was initially slow to filter through to households, with hardships and cold winters persisting into the later 1940s. Against this backdrop, the Communist Party, imbued with the moral authority of the Resistance, became a major political force. The war meanwhile disrupted France’s institutions, including all of those with significance for Dolto

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Dolto in the twenty-first century
Richard Bates

associated, she was not well versed in the psychology of race and colonialism, and had not interrogated the racist assumptions that she had carried with her from her interwar right-wing origins. 6 To be confronted with these issues in a place where she was a genuine outsider, and lacked her usual cultural authority, made the experience even more disturbing. However, this moment of dissonance did not cause Dolto to rethink her orientation. Speaking at a 1984 conference in Tunis on ‘the child, family and the environment’, Dolto

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Psychoanalysis in interwar France
Richard Bates

for married women in the 1938 Civil Code. Meanwhile, the way that psychoanalysis as an international movement thought about the family and women’s roles had evolved considerably by the 1930s. Marxist historian Eli Zaretsky has posited that the ‘original historical telos [of psychoanalysis] was defamilialisation , the freeing of individuals from unconscious images of authority originally rooted in the family’. 50 Much of Freud’s pre-1914 thinking on these subjects certainly seemed to emphasise individual freedom from the

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France