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Carmen M. Mangion

8 Authority and governance We must go out and conquer the world without being afraid of the difficulties or snares it sets in our way. There must be nothing petty about a Sister of Notre Dame. She must have the strong heart of a man, and a generous soul filled with the spirit of the good God.1 This directive found in the Book of the Instructions of Blessed Mère Julie (1909) was uncompromising. The founder Julie Billiart warned of impending struggles defeated only by the sister of Notre Dame’s ‘strong heart of a man’ and her soul filled with the ‘spirit of the

in Contested identities
The development of Protestantism in Nantes, 1558–72
Elizabeth C. Tingle

Chap 3 19/6/06 9:46 am Page 53 3 Challenges to authority: the development of Protestantism in Nantes, 1558–72 ‘The faith of the people of Brittany has always been so constant and pure that the heresy of the last century, so widespread in all the provinces of the kingdom, was not able to penetrate this one.’1 Antoine Boschet’s seventeenthcentury life of the Jesuit missionary Julien Maunoir echoed the popular belief then current in Brittany that the province was little affected by the Calvinism which emerged in France after 1550. But the reality was different

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98

This book explores the theory and practice of authority during the later sixteenth century, in the religious culture and political institutions of the city of Nantes, where the religious wars traditionally came to an end with the great Edict of 1598. The Wars of Religion witnessed serious challenges to the authority of the last Valois kings of France. In an examination of the municipal and ecclesiastical records of Nantes, the author considers challenges to authority, and its renegotiation and reconstruction in the city, during the civil war period. After a detailed survey of the socio-economic structures of the mid-sixteenth-century city, successive chapters detail the growth of the Protestant church, assess the impact of sectarian conflict and the early counter reform movement on the Catholic Church, and evaluate the changing political relations of the city council with the urban population and with the French crown. Finally, the book focuses on the Catholic League rebellion against the king and the question of why Nantes held out against Henry IV longer than any other French city.

Catholicism in Nantes, 1560–89
Elizabeth C. Tingle

Chap 6 19/6/06 9:48 am Page 151 6 The authority of tradition: Catholicism in Nantes, 1560–89 In 1600, with the religious wars over and Brittany once more at peace, a young Bohemian traveller visited Nantes. He admired the fortifications and convents of the city and observed that the Breton towns were ‘more rigorous that any others in their observance of the Catholic faith, such that . . . everyone, even the sick, is forbidden, and indeed refuses, to eat meat on fast days’.1 Yet in the 1550s and 1560s there arose a Protestant movement which attracted up to

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98
David J. Appleby

Preaching, audience and authority Chapter 2 Preaching, audience and authority T he ‘matter of the ministry’, as Thomas Horton described it, exercised the minds both of preachers and the Restoration establishment.1 In 1661, Cavalier politicians framing the Treason Act had publicly laid the blame for the late rebellion ‘in very great measure’ upon seditious preaching.2 Perversely, instead of neutering the pulpits, the Act of Uniformity served to emphasise the continuing centrality of preaching in public debate. Most of the individuals the Cavalier

in Black Bartholomew’s Day
Carmen Mangion

I knew there had to be changes but was amazed – I would say, even offended – at the haphazard manner in which information was made know[n] to the province at large. Authority disappeared, which made it difficult to find out for oneself. In short, turmoil reigned and two groups formed – ‘for change’ and ‘against change’. 1 Thinking back, this sister acknowledged the dramatic changes that were a part of her experience of the 1960s and 1970s as the congregation she had entered in the 1940s went through a re-engineering of how religious life was governed. The

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
David J. Appleby

Black Bartholomew’s Day Chapter 3 Scripture, historicism and the critique of authority C iting Matthew 10:16 in his afternoon farewell sermon at St Stephen’s Walbrook on August 17 – ‘Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves; be ye therefore wise as serpents and harmless as doves’ – Thomas Watson advised the godly to join the serpent with the dove.1 The Nottinghamshire minister William Cross assured his Beeston congregation that God was able to ‘give the wisdom of the Serpent to such as have the Doves Innocency’.2 The succeeding verses of

in Black Bartholomew’s Day
Catholic women religious in nineteenth-century England and Wales

Roman Catholic women's congregations are an enigma of nineteenth century social history. Over 10,000 women, establishing and managing significant Catholic educational, health care and social welfare institutions in England and Wales, have virtually disappeared from history. In nineteenth-century England, representations of women religious were ambiguous and contested from both within and without the convent. This book places women religious in the centre of nineteenth-century social history and reveals how religious activism shaped the identity of Catholic women religious. It is devoted to evolution of religious life and the early monastic life of the women. Catholic women were not pushed into becoming women religious. On the basis of their available options, they chose a path that best suited their personal, spiritual, economic and vocational needs. The postulancy and novitiate period formed a rite of passage that tested the vocation of each aspirant. The book explores the religious activism of women religious through their missionary identity and professional identity. The labour of these women was linked to their role as evangelisers. The book deals with the development of a congregation's corporate identity which brought together a disparate group of women under the banner of religious life. It looks specifically at class and ethnicity and the women who entered religious life, and identifies the source of authority for the congregation and the individual sister.

Elliot Vernon

argues that the critical factor in understanding the history of the Province of London was not institutional, but rather personal. The true backbone of London presbyterian government was not institutional foundation or authority, but the collective dedication of the London presbyterian laity and clergy to the cause of further reformation. The election of ruling elders The Province of London, at least according to the Parliamentary ordinances, covered ‘London’ in the widest sense of the word used in the seventeenth

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64
Elliot Vernon

settlement with the king, ending ultimately in the unintended consequence of the army becoming an ever-present factor in the politics of the period. This chapter analyses the presbyterian clergy’s dispute with Parliament in 1645 over the authority and jurisdiction of the projected settlement of the church. The reluctance of Parliament to ratify the Westminster assembly’s model of presbyterianism triggered the London clergy to mobilise a campaign for presbyterianism. In so doing, the London ministers encouraged a body of pro

in London presbyterians and the British revolutions, 1638–64