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Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

Tim Ingold

, Linnaeus had in mind that the imago – the image – would finally appear into the light once the mask in which it had been encased finally disintegrated. In art, after all, images can reveal themselves in the same way, and to Linnaeus the metamorphosis of the insect, from larva to imago, must have seemed like a case of nature imitating art. For artisans of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe had already been casting their own images of animal forms, using a technique that goes back to Roman antiquity. And their preferred animals were precisely those fabled for their

in Images in the making
Denys A. Stocks

techniques, which involved the manufacture of replica and reconstructed tools made from wood, stone, copper, bronze and other materials for test and evaluation. I constructed a home workshop containing a furnace for casting the copper and bronze tools, the first ones cast being replicas of anciently designed flat and crosscut tapered chisels. During an interview with Rosalie, mainly to discuss the subject area for the Certificate in Egyptology dissertation, I showed to her some of my cast copper chisels, and she mentioned that they were similar to copper chisels in the

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Abstract only
A commentary
Louisa Minkin

production, of casting, smithing, cupellation, depletion, gilding: metal works. These are the bijoux of folkloric dwarf smiths. We are cast as Giants. The guldgubbar are a pathos formula of little gold people, ‘wraiths’, animals and broken pieces. They parade like a glorious procession of shadow puppets into the future, abandoning their originary symbolic context for another itinerary altogether. Prised from context, loops are added for attachment to new eras. They are read backwards through written sources: refigured in proto-histories through the rich words of Snorri

in Images in the making
Abstract only
Iron Age ‘kintsugi’ from East Yorkshire
Helen Chittock

terrets, whilst Garrow and Gosden (2012: 218) note the varied appearances of its fittings as a whole group, which are decorated in a wide variety of different patterns. I also noted a similar mismatch within the group of five terrets from the Garton Station chariot. One terret is large and highly decorated, with three polished bone attachments, and has been made by casting a bronze form Pattern as patina 159 on to an iron ring. This contrasts with the four smaller and plainer terrets, which were made entirely from cast bronze, an unusual form of terret in East

in Images in the making
Catherine J. Frieman

well as one-use molds utilized in lost-wax casting techniques, were invented, and whole new toolkits for cold working and revitalizing finished objects would have been assembled. While the raw materials and technical processes of many of these ancillary technologies would have been familiar, their usage, forms, and juxtaposition were innovations in their own right (Radivojević 2015 ). Beyond technological innovations, numerous social, economic, and material changes were also bound up in the invention and spread of metallurgy. The physical properties of metal are

in An archaeology of innovation
A material and processual account of image making
Agni Prijatelj

the type of material imprinted is provided by the context of a Copper Age stamp from the Romanian site CăscioareleOstrovel: the specimen, which has an incised spiral, was recorded inside Building no. 4, along with more than 90 prismatic or oval-shaped loom weights and large quantities of pottery, as well as shell valves, lithics, fragments of a female figurine and a burnt clay mould for casting copper (Ştefan 2009: 151). The association of the stamp with a very large number of weights is significant, as it may imply the use of the tool in printing on fabric. Stamps

in Images in the making
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

using cling film as a fine intermediary layer, covered by strips of fibreglass casting tape that set hard, further strengthened by a polyester resin and further strips of fibreglass (Omar and McCord 1986 : 17). After careful cleaning, Lindow Man was then placed on a Perspex slab and treated with the above 15 per cent PEG 4000 solution for twenty-nine days at –28°C (Omar and McCord 1986 : 20). The time period seems to have been determined by repeated weighing, ceasing sublimation when ‘negligible weight loss occurred’ (Omar et al. 1989 : 107). The body was then

in Bog bodies
Setting the scene
Roger Forshaw

archaeological evidence.26 However, excavations at Bates’s Island in the bay of Mersa Matruh, to the east of Egypt, has unearthed some evidence, as finds indicate that this island may have been a centre of trade in the Bronze Age between the local inhabitants and the Cretans or Cypriots. It has also been suggested that the Cretans and Cypriots were casting bronze weapons on the island, which were then bartered with ‘Libyans’ on the mainland. Numbers of these weapons and objects of gold and silver as well as chariots were captured by the Egyptians during the wars of Merenptah

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Civil war to prosperity
Roger Forshaw

Periods and the standard of artefacts produced was high. In bronze work, lost-wax casting was a technique used to manufacture copper objects since at least the Old Kingdom, and particularly during the Third Intermediate Period, with improvements in techniques, some fine examples were being produced. There were further developments during the Saite Period such as lead now being routinely added to the copper which lowered the melting point, increased fluidity and reduced porosity. The increased fluidity allowed more complex shapes with finer detail to be cast in one piece

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC