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Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

pictures to produce an immersive spectacle, relying on the cinematic realism of non-fiction movies to increase the ‘perceptual experience’ and the ‘aesthetics of astonishment’ of the viewers ( Crawford-Holland, 2018 ). Back in the 1920s, ‘cinema … “virtually” extended human perceptions to events and locations beyond their physical and temporal bounds’ ( Uricchio, 1997 : 119). Humanitarian cinema thus participated in transnational campaigns aiming to mobilize and sensitize national audiences. More specifically, these movies also advocated on behalf of distant

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Michael Lawrence

Rehabilitation Administration, stated in his November 1943 acceptance address: ‘We must be guided not alone by the compelling force of human sentiments but also by dictates of sound common sense and of mutual interest.’ 8 However, it is to those ‘human sentiments’ that Hollywood cinema’s ‘sorrowful spectacle’ of suffering children (sorrowful meaning both showing and causing grief) is most likely (and

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
Valérie Gorin and Sönke Kunkel

’s reportage of the visually displaced in Europe between June 1918 and April 1919, published in the mass-circulated and popular Red Cross Magazine of the American Red Cross. Valérie Gorin’s analysis dives into the early use of humanitarian cinema in the 1920s, during the pivotal period of 1919–23 and the first international humanitarian response in Europe, to show how cinema participated as a set of communication practices convergent with transnational activism and advocacy. Sönke Kunkel

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

humanitarianism as influenced by different cultures is crucial. Reeves also hits on a common theme raised in other essays: the ways that public portrayals of humanitarian organisations are often wrapped up with specific national projects. This is as true of the Red Cross in China as it was of the Red Cross in Switzerland in the wake of WWI, as Francesca Piana shows in her essay, ‘Photography, Cinema, and the Quest for Influence’. Piana highlights the extent to which the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

action at a patient’s bed. Others included poster collections or TV screens that showed documentary film footage. In Geislingen, the exhibit also featured computers and a cinema tent, but that was an exception. Given the low budget of most German Red Cross museums, presentations were usually organized around historical objects, not by way of immersive multimedia environments. The visual politics of German Red Cross museums open an important window on a third variant of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Valérie Gorin

Introduction Humanitarian films in the 1920s served to blame or impel audiences, without naming or shaming perpetrators most of the time. Instead of being proper political advocacy, early humanitarian cinema displayed more educational advocacy, which aims to impose a transformative agenda based on solidarity. Advocacy developed more systematically as a form of humanitarian communication in the 1970s and 1980s. It was influenced by the French and British schools of humanitarianism ( Dolan, 1992 ; Edwards, 1993 ; Gorin, 2018 ). While British NGOs such as

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This collection interrogates the representation of humanitarian crisis and catastrophe, and the refraction of humanitarian intervention and action, from the mid-twentieth century to the present, across a diverse range of media forms: traditional and contemporary screen media (film, television and online video) as well as newspapers, memoirs, music festivals and social media platforms (such as Facebook, YouTube and Flickr). The book thus explores the historical, cultural and political contexts that have shaped the mediation of humanitarian relationships since the middle of the twentieth century. Together, the chapters illustrate the continuities and connections, as well as the differences, which have characterised the mediatisation of both states of emergency and acts of amelioration. The authors reveal and explore the significant synergies between the humanitarian enterprise, the endeavour to alleviate the suffering of particular groups, and media representations, and their modes of addressing and appealing to specific publics. The chapters consider the ways in which media texts, technologies and practices reflect and shape the shifting moral, political, ethical, rhetorical, ideological and material dimensions of international humanitarian emergency and intervention, and have become integral to the changing relationships between organisations, institutions, governments, individual actors and entire sectors.

Cultural and economic relations between the British film industry and Hollywood
Jonathan Stubbs

unintentionally, it’s fair to assume) a different Anglo-American relationship, one based in the long-term economic interaction and cultural exchange between the British and American film industries. This chapter looks closely at this dynamic but highly uneven interaction. The specter of Hollywood features strongly in writing about British cinema history, but Britain has generally been given a lower profile in historical accounts of American film. In part, this reflects the general imbalance of Anglo-American cultural and economic relations in the twentieth century and beyond

in Culture matters
The Marshall Plan films about Greece
Katerina Loukopoulou

presence both in the United States and in Europe than in previous cases of the United States offering loans and aid that remained under the radar. General Marshall’s predilection for film was instrumental to this end, adopted as the ideal medium for propagating the ‘benevolent’ nature of the ERP. Marshall had expressed his staunch belief in the dramatic power of cinema to promote the US cause in 1942

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
Michael Lawrence and Rachel Tavernor

understanding of, and also active involvement in, various global humanitarian endeavours, organisations and institutions that developed during and in the decades following the Second World War: the United Nations Organisation, the Marshall Plan and the US Peace Corps. This section examines a range of media forms, including popular cinema and television shows and documentary films, and press coverage and public relations campaigns, in

in Global humanitarianism and media culture