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Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

pictures to produce an immersive spectacle, relying on the cinematic realism of non-fiction movies to increase the ‘perceptual experience’ and the ‘aesthetics of astonishment’ of the viewers ( Crawford-Holland, 2018 ). Back in the 1920s, ‘cinema … “virtually” extended human perceptions to events and locations beyond their physical and temporal bounds’ ( Uricchio, 1997 : 119). Humanitarian cinema thus participated in transnational campaigns aiming to mobilize and sensitize national audiences. More specifically, these movies also advocated on behalf of distant

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Valérie Gorin and Sönke Kunkel

’s reportage of the visually displaced in Europe between June 1918 and April 1919, published in the mass-circulated and popular Red Cross Magazine of the American Red Cross. Valérie Gorin’s analysis dives into the early use of humanitarian cinema in the 1920s, during the pivotal period of 1919–23 and the first international humanitarian response in Europe, to show how cinema participated as a set of communication practices convergent with transnational activism and advocacy. Sönke Kunkel

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

action at a patient’s bed. Others included poster collections or TV screens that showed documentary film footage. In Geislingen, the exhibit also featured computers and a cinema tent, but that was an exception. Given the low budget of most German Red Cross museums, presentations were usually organized around historical objects, not by way of immersive multimedia environments. The visual politics of German Red Cross museums open an important window on a third variant of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Valérie Gorin

Introduction Humanitarian films in the 1920s served to blame or impel audiences, without naming or shaming perpetrators most of the time. Instead of being proper political advocacy, early humanitarian cinema displayed more educational advocacy, which aims to impose a transformative agenda based on solidarity. Advocacy developed more systematically as a form of humanitarian communication in the 1970s and 1980s. It was influenced by the French and British schools of humanitarianism ( Dolan, 1992 ; Edwards, 1993 ; Gorin, 2018 ). While British NGOs such as

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Ahmad H. Sa’di

Notes 1 On the Web:, Law and Administration Ordinance (published 19 May 1948). 2, Also Kirshbaum (n.d.), Jiryis (1976:9–20). 3 Among these films is King Solomon’s Mines, which is based on a biblical motif. For example, Agasi asked the cinema department on 29 August 1956 to lend him this film as well as the film Children of the Prairie – Hebrew translation (Agassi, 29 August 1956). ‘Letter to the cinema department

in Thorough surveillance
Abstract only
Refugees in Russia, 1914-18
Irina Belova

them in conversation. There are plenty of instances of locals and refugees getting together to socialise or to watch their children play together. Local people shared food and clothes with refugees. New friendships sometimes culminated in marriage between refugees and locals.52 Newspapers wrote that the refugees made themselves ‘at home’ and were keen to attend the theatre and cinema – although these reports were tinged with a degree of unease that refugees had become ‘nearly the prevalent part of the public’. But refugees were not passive spectators. They expressed

in Europe on the move
Refugee communities and the state in France, 1914–18
Alex Dowdall

the Marne committee, addressed by local senator Léon Bourgeois, was attended by over 2,000.25 The Pas-de-Calais committee organised a series of conferences on reconstruction in 1917 that attracted almost 5,000 people.26 A stream of lower-key events complemented these large meetings, from children’s parties, to cinema screenings, guided museum visits, lectures examining local history, art and architecture, and monthly social evenings.27 Most committees also had offices with regular hours where refugees could meet, talk, exchange information and read newspapers

in Europe on the move
Screening war in Kosovo and Chechnya
Cerwyn Moore

, Kosovo and the Future of Combat (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), pp. 85–86. Ibid., p. 59. Ibid., p. 86. J. Baudrillard, The Gulf War Did Not Take Place (Sydney: Power Publications, 1995); Paul Virilio, War and Cinema: The Logistics of Perception (London: Verso, 1990). Z. Žižek, Welcome to the Desert of the Real (New York: Verso, 2002). P. Virilio (2000) From Modernism to Hypermodernism (London: Sage, 2000), p. 70. M. Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a New Era (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999), pp. 1–2. M. Kaldor, ‘The “New War” in Iraq’, Theoria, Vol. 53

in Contemporary violence
Abstract only
Julia Gallagher

cinema and a new civic hall. The whole project collapsed because the community cinema said, ‘I don’t think we want to be part of this anymore.’ They just walked away from £9 million. And you just think, we should be so lucky that we’ve got so much money for a faci­ lity like this, and so rich that we can just walk away from it. How in Sierra Leone they just say yes, we’ll have this and we’ll have that. There’s none of, ‘well, is it the right colour?’16 In a sense, if Britain can somehow ‘float free’ of interests in Africa, the continent also allows the politicians who

in Britain and Africa under Blair
Abstract only
Carla Konta

, nevertheless, it stayed in the back of our minds as a powerful force, an inner motivation, a dormant desire for change, an opportunity to awaken.’ 83 Beyond the ‘library’ An innovative feature of American public diplomacy consisted in meticulously planned ‘outside’ activities held in Yugoslav schools, education institutions, and even small rural villages. Among these activities, movies played a crucial propaganda role. In the 1950s and 1960s, cinemas were the most popular entertainment in Yugoslavia. Data from 1958 reveals that, for nineteen million Yugoslav inhabitants

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70