Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Rehabilitation Administration, stated in his November 1943 acceptance
address: ‘We must be guided not alone by the compelling force of human
sentiments but also by dictates of sound common sense and
of mutual interest.’ 8
However, it is to those ‘human sentiments’ that Hollywood cinema’s
‘sorrowful spectacle’ of suffering children (sorrowful meaning both
showing and causing grief) is most likely (and
Confino (i.e., internal exile) was a malleable form of imprisonment during the Fascist ventennio. Confinement allowed Mussolini to bypass the judiciary thereby placing prisoners outside magistrates’ jurisdiction. The Regime applied it to political dissidents, ethnic and religious minorities, gender nonconforming people, and mafiosi, among others. Recent political discourse in and beyond Italy has drawn on similar rationales to address perceived threats against the State. This study examines confino from a historical, political, social, and cultural perspective. It provides a broad overview of the practice and it also examines particular cases and situations. In addition to this historical assessment, it is the first to analyse confinement as a cultural practice through representations in literature (e.g., letters, memoirs, historical fiction) and film. English-language publications often overlook confino and its representations. Italian critical literature, instead, often speaks in purely historical terms or is rooted in partisan perspectives. This book demonstrates that internal exile is not purely political: it possesses a cultural history that speaks to the present. The scope of this study, therefore, is to provide a cultural reading that makes manifest aspects of confino that have been appropriated by contemporary political discourse. Although directed towards students and specialists of Italian history, literature, film, and culture, the study offers a coherent portrait of confino accessible to those with a general interest in Fascism.
The Good Friday Agreement is widely celebrated as a political success story, one that has brought peace to a region previously synonymous across the globe with political violence. The truth, as ever, is rather more complicated than that. In many respects, the era of the peace process has seen Northern Irish society change almost beyond recognition. Those incidents of politically motivated violence that were once commonplace have become thankfully rare, and a new generation has emerged whose identities and interests are rather more fluid and cosmopolitan than those of their parents. In many other regards, however, Northern Ireland continues to operate in the long shadow of its own turbulent recent past. Those who were victims of violence, as well as those who were its agents, have often been consigned to the margins of a society clearly still struggling to cope with the traumas of the Troubles. Furthermore, the transition to ‘peace’ has revealed the existence of new, and not so new, forms of violence in Northern Irish society, not least those directed towards women, ethnic minorities and the poor. In Northern Ireland a generation after Good Friday, we set out to capture the complex, and often contradictory, realities that have emerged more than two decades on from the region’s vaunted peace deal. Across nine original essays, the book provides a critical and comprehensive reading of a society that often appears to have left its violent past behind but at the same time remains subject to its gravitational pull.
Auteurship and exploitation in the history of punk cinema
Silver screen sedition:
auteurship and exploitation
in the history of punk
‘Will your school be next?’: mischief and mayhem at
Vince Lombardi High
Teen rebellion is a force to be reckoned with at Vince Lombardi High School.
The setting for the punk-musical-comedy Rock ’n’ Roll High School (1979),
Lombardi High has seen a succession of principals driven to despair by the
recalcitrant students. Led by Riff Randell (P. J. Soles) – a nonstop party girl
and fervid fan of punk stalwarts, the Ramones – the school kids are a font
/Machine trilogy’, German Studies Review , 38:2 (May 2015): 329 .
23 V. Pantenburg, ‘Working images: Harun Farocki and the operational image’, in J. Eder and C. Klonk (eds), Image Operations: Visual Media and Political Conflict (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017) , 49.
24 H. Foster, ‘The cinema of Harun Farocki’, Artforum , 43:3 (November 2004): 156–161 .
25 Foster, ‘The cinema of Harun Farocki’, 160.
26 I. Hoelzl and R. Marie, Softimage: Towards a New Theory of the Digital Image (Bristol: Intellect, 2015) , 3–4. In a similar vein, Edgar Gómez
University Press, 2012) .
20 P. Virilio, War and Cinema: The Logistics of Perception (London: Verso, 1989) .
21 For research on the visual empowerment of drones, see for instance D. Gregory, ‘From a view to a kill: Drones and late modern war’, Theory, Culture & Society , 28:7–8 (2011):188–215 ; D. Gregory, ‘Drone geographies’, Radical Philosophy 183 (2014): 7–19 ; P. Adey, M. Whitehead and A. Williams, From Above: War, Violence, and Verticality (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013) ; C. Kaplan, Aerial Aftermaths: Wartime from Above (Durham, NC
Nineteenth-century hot air balloons as early drones
metaphorically as airships trying to sail against the dominant narrative of drone technology as one that makes us more safe and secure.
1 Quoted after D. Gregory, ‘From a view to a kill: Drones and late modern war’, Theory, Culture & Society , 28:7–8 (2011): 188–215 , 192.
2 C. Metz, Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1991) ; M. Jay , ‘Cultural relativism and the visual turn’, Journal of Visual Culture , 1:3 (2002): 267–278 .
3 I owe this insight to A. Bousquet, The Eye of War: Military Perception from
Kirby, 2013 ). In this respect, as Billig observes ( 2005 : 7), ‘we are the laughing animal only because we are also the unlaughing one’: the charge that something isn’t funny functions as a recognition of its status as humour rather than as a refusal. Second, ‘humour’ as defined here both encompasses and exceeds ‘comedy’, understood as a formal genre of performance that usually takes place in an overtly mediated setting (on stage, on a cinema or TV screen, through a radio speaker, within a text). In addition, humour also refers to the attempted incitement
. Previously, the devices that recorded still photography and film and video were completely separate. Today, however, even your average mobile phone records a second before and after taking a picture. The result is a slightly moving picture. Or just think of the popularity of gifs and things like that which are just a series of still photos played in a loop. What is happening is that the purely still image is fading off and is barely around. It is becoming backgrounded into a still image with a little bit of life to it. And that is a separate thing from what cinema has been
horror cinema of the mid-twentieth century, the word ‘blob’ will conjure the eponymously titled 1958 teen film in which a human-devouring amoeba-like alien organism, which has fallen to earth in a meteorite, terrorises a small town and threatens to eventually engulf the entire planet but for the valiant efforts of two quick-thinking teenagers. 29 Eventually flash frozen and transported to the north pole, the blob is left there to hibernate for ‘as long as the arctic stays cold’ – a chillingly prescient cliff-hanger if ever there was one. But putting aside the