The study of German electoral politics has been neglected of late, despite being one of the most pervasive elements of the German political process. This book argues that concentration on electoral politics facilitates deeper understanding and appreciation of the German political system. It provides explanations and analysis of the federal electoral system, its evolution and the challenges that have been made to its format; discusses the role of electoral politics in relation to political parties and to the public; and the influence of second-order elections in the German political system. The book goes on to evaluate the effectiveness of the German electoral system in relation to its functions, and challenges the premise that electoral politics makes a difference in Germany. Ultimately, it aims to reconcile the apparently limited role that elections have in determining the composition of governments with the notion that there is a ‘permanent election campaign’ in existence in German politics.
largest single party in
the Bundestag. So had the Christian Democrats succeeded in displacing
Brandt, the outcome would have been contrary to the desires of the
The point of this survey of changes in governments is that Bundestag
elections do not usually directly aﬀect the compositionofgovernments.
The 1998 election was an exception, since relatively large transfers of
support from the Christian Democrats and FDP to the SPD took place
(the Greens lost vote-share in that election). In 1969 the new coalition
partners (SPD and FDP) together had a slightly
responsibility (Cabinet Office, 2010a ). Published at the same time as Our
Programme for Government was a separate document entitled the
Constitutional Agreement for Stability and Reform , which
mapped out further details on how the coalition would work, explaining,
for example, issues around the compositionofgovernment, how the
principles of collective responsibility would operate, and voting in
tables 4.3 and 4.4).
However, factors other than the ethnic one must be considered in
assessing the likelihood of secession and the prospects for democratic consolidation in the republics. The most important additional factor is the
overall wealth and economic status of the federal subjects and the degree
to which they are economically dependent on the centre and this is one
of the topics we now turn to in chapter 5.
Ethnic compositionofgovernment elite in Bashkortostan, 1990–97
The Conference of Religious in Ireland (Justice Commission)
generally – is affected by several factors including the balance of forces the between capital and labour, previously embedded patterns
of the welfare state, the current compositionofgovernment, and electoral
sentiment. The challenge for the CVP was to achieve its goals taking account
of shifts in some of these independent factors and to get its timing right as
between economic and political cycles. Increasingly, CORI Justice got into
the fray as the leading voice on the issue of relativity between social welfare
and average earnings. This campaign is instructive, both
Chicago Press, 2002), pp. 139–57; M.
O’Brien, ‘The Celluloid War: Packaging War for Sale in Nazi Home-Front Films’,
in Etlin (ed.), Art, Culture, and Media under the Third Reich, pp. 158–80.
39 N. J. Cull, Selling War; James Chapman, The British at War: Cinema, State, and
Propaganda 1939–1945 (London: I. B. Tauris, 1998).
40 E. Shortt, speech to the Conference of the Cinema Exhibitors’ Association, 27 June
41 Harold Perkin notes that the compositionofgovernment was increasingly middle
class after World War I, due in part to Lloyd George’s effort to include
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy and Michele Crepaz
practices are in use in the Departments of Finance or Agriculture where the ministers occupy top positions in the WKÖ and the Farmers’ Association (Baunernbund).
As discussed in the section about the nature of lobbying, Austrian political parties and social partners share a substantial part of their membership. As a result, the prohibition of role accumulation for social partners would have undermined the revolving doors between these organisations with consequences for the compositionofgovernment (Crepaz, 2016 ).
Overall, the Austrian lobbying law can