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Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

Jes Wienberg

Chapter 7 presents the term “Heritopia” in order to conceptualise the utopian expectations associated with World Heritage and summarise the optimistic outcome of the investigation. The content of the chapter is arranged according to the seven paradoxes formulated in the encounter with Abu Simbel, now on a global level, and the discussion explains why these paradoxes are inevitable: World Heritage is both global and local; that is, it is glocal; all change, irrespectively of whether it represents an increase or a decrease of modernity, may create heritage; World Heritage as a category is a modern invention and modernity is an ambiguous concept, therefore it is possible for World Heritage both to be in contrast to modernity and to be a part of it; actual or rhetorical threats are important when it comes to designating remains as heritage, but even heritage might become a threat and that which threatens heritage may become heritage itself; the preservation of a site represents a priority and an exception, which means that other sites receive less attention and may be destroyed; all preservation implies change; and remains of the past may be impossible to preserve in eternity, but it is meaningful to carry them into the future and use them creatively.

in Heritopia
Lidija M. McKnight and Stephanie Atherton-Woolham

multiple imaging modalities offers the most comprehensive view of the content of wrapped mummy bundles and maximises access to radiographic facilities. Therefore, DR is conducted in dual projections (anteroposterior and lateral with oblique projections as required) as a ‘triage’ method to assess the presence or absence of skeletal remains. CT is routinely applied and proved useful in cases where DR revealed interesting anomalies, but was unable to clarify their nature, and in highlighting mummy bundle construction methods. Imaging techniques have limitations when dealing

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Denys A. Stocks

casting each individual chisel in a clean crucible. Upon becoming cold, each casting immediately received a sequential identity project number punched into it before its designated flat or crosscut taper was hammered to shape. This number referred to its metallic content, its scientifically determined hardness and its performance in cutting different wood and stone types (Stocks 1988, II: appendix C, 1–4; appendix H, 1–6). The casting of the chisels took place in open sand moulds. Six chisels were designated as copper tools, project nos. 1–4, 6 and 26, and six chisels

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
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An investigation into the connection between veterinary and medical practice in ancient Egypt
Conni Lord

thereof are both understandable and rational to a modern reader. The content and layout attest to the papyrus’s practical use, rather than simply being an object of historical curiosity. The text of the first and third case studies is extremely damaged, and in the few interpretations of the papyrus, scholars are in disagreement as to the type of diseases that are being recorded. The first few lines of the first preserved case study, entitled ‘[Eye examination of a bull with] nest of a worm’, are so badly damaged as to make meaningful translation impossible, although it

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Campbell Price

’ (Gorrini 2012: 121). on the function of ‘healing’ statues 173 A hierarchy of text arrangement is recognisable on some naophorus statues. Most notable is the 27th Dynasty example belonging to a man named Udjahorresnet (Vatican 196; Baines 1996: 83–92), with sacred content in texts (such as direct appeals to gods) concentrated around the naos element and more ‘secular’ biographical content in visually subordinate positions (Baines 1996: 90–2). More generally, Late Period statue owners – in either naophorus or theophorus stances – were able to assert not only the

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
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The role of meteorite iron in the development of iron-working techniques in ancient Egypt
Diane Johnson and Joyce Tyldesley

nickel-rich, and this convinced the Egyptian Museum in Cairo that they were produced from meteorites (Bjorkman 1973: 124). However, more recent analysis of the dagger blade gave 3 per cent nickel content by weight: this is more suggestive of a smelted origin, and possibly production by the use of nickel-rich laterites (Helmi and Barakat 1995: 287–9; Photos 1989: 403–21). It seems probable that this dagger was imported into Egypt. Natural sources of iron in antiquity Worldwide, only two natural forms of metallic iron are known to occur, and both of these are rare. The

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
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was the Alderney Archaeology – Code of Practice, the first document in the island’s history to stipulate the procedures for applying for and carrying out archaeological works on Alderney. While having recognised standards is clearly an important form of heritage protection, the content of the Code of Practice does indicate that future work relating to the forced and slave workers may be even more difficult to initiate. For example, the document states that ‘sensationalist work can bring the island into

in 'Adolf Island'
Jette Sandahl

, from desire and denial to fear, anger and grief, derived from the logic of the pandemic itself, created a shared structure for the whole, and provided a precarious but essential emotional balancing act of documenting societal and personal tragedy, while also celebrating and showcasing personal resilience, courage and solidarity. While exhibitions like No Name Fever and Trafficking took their themes and content from urgent contemporary issues and were clearly not ­collection-based, they were none the less unequivocally object-based. Unexpected and emotionally

in Curatopia
An epistemology of postcolonial debate
Larissa Förster and Friedrich von Bose

institutional setting, the curatorial voice, and the infrastructure and media employed in its production, all have an impact on the way in which visitors make sense of the ‘content’ and foster or impede certain perceptions and understandings. We need to continue the debate on decolonising ethnological museums (or, in fact, any museum) with the same sensibility in terms of how it is shaped by the sites, structures and media that constitute it. As a consequence, we might have to experiment with the formats through which we engage with each other so that they enable both

in Curatopia