kind of reading that concentrates on the content, the way it is expressed, how well it flows and so on. This also means rewriting as necessary.
Proof-reading is quite different. It derives from the practicalities of the production of a printed item. Proofs are preliminary printed versions of a book, journal or whatever. Only a few copies are produced in order that authors and editors may spot and correct any mistakes and generally check through everything to be sure it is all properly presented and laid out before it is put into production – hence the term
Web 2.0 technologies open up many new opportunities to engage publics at all stages of the research process, from design, through data collection and processing, to dissemination, and in a variety of different ways. These can range from fairly passive approaches that provide content for those seeking information (e.g. via project web pages) to highly interactive approaches, such as games and apps. These projects are enabled by a growth in technology, both hardware and software, that enables interaction and engagement and makes it easier for individuals to
outcome measure, to measure the extent
to which people were involved in their own
care planning. You can read more about the
importance of patient-reported outcome
measures and how you might design and
test them in Chapter 6.
We explored the organisational changes that
needed to be made by Community Mental
Health Teams and the wider healthcare
The content of the training was ‘evidencesystem to improve user and carer involved
based.’ This means that it was built upon
care planning. We did this by talking to
detailed knowledge of the care-planning
different people and
relationship between ratings of two independent
raters of the same behaviour. To assess the reliability of scales we use scores
from 0 = low reliability to 1 = the highest level of reliability.
4. Ensuring Validity
Validity is the degree to which a scale
measures what it was designed to measure.
Different types of validity exist and include
face, concurrent, content, construct,
incremental and predictive (criterion) validity.
As with reliability, large, representative
samples are needed to establish validity.
Face validity is not really a form of validity as
it only measures
communication and its routes are being challenged in the context of changing communication opportunities. In today’s information-rich and diverse multimedia world, even someone who might be rather passively engaging with some news content online, for example, may have made a choice to actively seek it out (Hornig Priest, 2009 ). The concept of audience has become increasingly diverse, and the context of communication in which it sits is progressively multifaceted; ‘we keep the familiar word, but the thing [audience] itself is disappearing’ (Carpentier et al. , 2014a
social media for research communication. We define social media as those internet-based tools and platforms that allow individuals to create content, some of which also facilitate conversations and networking between individuals. Social media offer the potential of many-to-many communication, though in practice we also see both few-to-many (for example high-profile Twitter or YouTube accounts that have many followers) and few-to-few (for example, some LinkedIn Groups have only a few hundred members, but many of these members post regularly and comment on each other
seriously or to be disruptive protagonists. Furedi explores the paradox that we live in a flourishing knowledge society where at the same time knowledge is being packaged in banal and mundane ways for marketing, consumption and transmission, with value placed in its receipt, above its content. Ever-expanding opportunities for life-long learning, formal education attendance and museum and cultural visits, according to Furedi ( 2004 ), may neglect their greater purpose and value. ‘There is a new breed of university managers, museum and gallery directors, and “knowledge
research can be:
• undertaken independently in its own right
part of a bigger study or trial, to provide deeper understanding of the
used to support the development of quantitative studies by informing
• beor testing
survey content and to explore the implementation of
BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 96
Figure 18 Examples of EQUIP research questions
addressed using qualitative research methods
• How do service users conceptualise care planning involvement?
can meaningful service user and carer
, whilst there are now multiple opportunities through which researchers are able to communicate – in the media, through popular writing, in online content, and so forth – there remain some particular opportunities to communicate in face-to-face settings, which can be seen to have particular benefits in reaching out from the figurative or otherwise tower.
This chapter will introduce readers to opportunities for face-to-face communication and engagement activities. It will cover key approaches, including participation in the research process, moving through to
content were the primary motives for participation, while learning and participating in a social community were less frequently cited as reasons. They also noted differences between men and women in the responses, with women more motivated by the beauty of galaxies and the fun of classification and men more motivated by an interest in the science. However, the most common primary motivation was to contribute to scientific research, which suggests that there are many potential volunteers who would value the opportunity to contribute to research studies