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Understanding perceptions of Muslims in the news

This book considers how the coverage of Islam and Muslims in the press informs the thoughts and actions of non-Muslims. As media plays an important role in society, analysing its influence(s) on a person’s ideas and conceptualisations of people with another religious persuasion is important. News reports commonly feature stories discussing terrorism, violence, the lack of integration and compatibility, or other unwelcome or irrational behaviour by Muslims and Islam. Yet there is little research on how non-Muslims actually engage with, and are affected by, such reports. To address this gap, a content and discourse analysis of news stories was undertaken; verbal narratives or thoughts and actions of participants were then elicited using interviews and focus groups. The participant accounts point towards the normativity of news stories and their negotiated reception patterns. Individual orientations towards the media as an information source proved to be a significant factor behind the importance of news reports, with individually negotiated personal encounters with Muslims or Islam further affecting the meaning-making process. Participants negotiated media reports to fit their existing outlook on Islam and Muslims. This outlook was constructed through, and simultaneously supported by, news reports about Muslims and Islam. The findings suggest a co-dependency and co-productivity between news reports and participant responses. This research clearly shows that participant responses are (re)productions of local and personal contextuality, where the consequences of socially constructed depictions of Islam and Muslims engage rather than influence individual human thoughts and actions.

Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

clarify stances that may be incorporated within the text, or become part of future state practice. Customary international law that is created in this way shares some characteristics with treaty law. The absence of women from the formal treaty-making processes that is described in chapter 4 thus also affects the development of custom. The content of the category of ‘general principles of law recognised by

in The boundaries of international law
Michael Breen, Michael Courtney, Iain Mcmenamin, Eoin O’Malley, and Kevin Rafter

in two national daily newspapers, the Irish Independent and the Irish Times. Third, we use content analysis data from the 2016 general election to explore the impact of commercialisation on eleven media sources in print and broadcast formats. In the latter discussion, we pay particular attention to coverage of the 2016 election in the Irish editions of British newspapers. Many of our findings do not conform to established ideas about commercialism identified in other international studies and challenge how the idea of commercialisation is considered in discussions

in Resilient reporting
Challenges in cyberdefense cooperation for the U.S. and India
Bedavyasa Mohanty

the physical realm that are planned and executed through cyber means. Much of this data is retained by popular technology platforms (such as e-mail and private messaging services) that are U.S. based. Under U.S. law, these communication service providers are barred from sharing “content” 21 data unless specifically requested to do so under a warrant by a U.S. court. Therefore, in order to pursue criminal investigations, foreign law enforcement agencies must rely on a bilateral mechanism to obtain electronic evidence

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
Egypt’s counter-terrorism policy post-9/ 11 and beyond
Bassant Hassib

, “Media Regulation Law 92/2016,” 14 allows the Supreme Council for the Regulation of Media to block media content and websites that may harm national security, and control their funding. Fifth, Sisi ratified a new “Law on NGOs 70/2017,” 15 despite CSOs’ concerns that it will “eliminate all but regime supporters

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
An important moment for strategic action on collective cyberdefense
Jamil N. Jaffer

and tensions in play between the U.S. and India in 2019 likewise had a critical technology component – whether it relates to H1-B visa holders in the U.S., or so-called “forced localization” processes, including “in-country data storage, domestic content, […] domestic testing requirements[,] … restrictive localization rules for certain financial data flows … [and] local sourcing rules.” 31 Given the huge strategic role that technology plays in the bilateral relationship between the U.S. and India, not to

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
James Johnson

motivated. 46 In 2017, Chinese President Xi Jinping explicitly called for the acceleration of the military’s intelligentization agenda to prepare China for future warfare against a near-peer adversary, namely the US. 47 Although Chinese think-tanks and academic discourse are generally poor at disseminating their debates and content, open-source evidence suggests a clear link between China’s political agenda related to the ‘digital revolution,’ Chinese sovereignty and national security, and the current public debate

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
Abstract only
Managing an AI future
James Johnson

decided to field the machine? 53 Some observers have defined this problem as the responsibility-accountability gap, and so consider the use of autonomous weapons as fundamentally unethical. 54 Early efforts towards addressing these issues have recently emerged in the public and private sectors. In 2019 the US Senate passed a ‘Deepfake Report Act,’ requiring the US Secretary of Homeland Security to write an annual report on the use of deepfake technology “to fabricate or manipulate audio, visual, or text content

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
Sarah L. Henderson, Scott N. Romaniuk, and Aliaksandr Novikau

, 2010 . “ Military doctrine of the Russian Federation .” www.kremlin.ru/ref_notes/461 Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of December 26, 2014 . “ Military doctrine of the Russian Federation .” www.offiziere.ch/wp-content/uploads-001/2015/08/Russia-s-2014-Military

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Abstract only
James Johnson

data-sets to train ML algorithms. Today, AI ML techniques are routinely used in many everyday applications, including: empowering navigation maps for ridesharing software; by banks to detect fraudulent and suspicious transactions; making recommendations to customers on shopping and entertainment websites; supporting virtual personal assistants that use voice recognition software to offer their users content, and enabling improvements in medical diagnosis and scans. 36 While advances in ML-enabled AI applications for

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare