the Vichy past in French public and political life, crime fiction emphasises different circuits of memory, informed by more diffuse social and
cultural processes of remembrance. These popular circuits of memory
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French crime fiction and the Second World War
can help enhance our understanding of culturalmemories of the war
years and their evolution in France in three key respects.
Firstly, the crime fiction discussed in this study has confirmed a movement away from politically and ideologically inflected representations of
contributing to popular culture’s shaping of war memory, French
crime fiction provides a colourful corpus of texts with which to extend
analysis of what it means to live in the shadow of such a past.
French crime fiction and the Second World War
This introduction will set out the conceptual, historical and literarycritical foundations on which this study is built. It will begin by mapping
memory, exploring some of the major approaches to the study of collective memory. It will focus in particular on culturalmemory and the significance of fictional forms as some of
struggle, writing the history of death, grief and
bereavement into the wider history of Britain’s Second World War.
Death and the ‘people’s war’
This book places death, and the grief that so often accompanied it, at
the heart of our understanding of Britain’s Second World War. The
dominant culturalmemory of the British experience of this war that
circulates in Britain in the second decade of the twenty-first century
has little space for representations of death, of grief or of bereavement.
It is, as all memories must be, a partial story of the war years – one that
The missing legacy of Britain’s reserved occupations
Juliette Pattinson, Arthur McIvor, and Linsey Robb
, Remembering War, p. 7.
44 Peniston-Bird, ‘War and Peace in the Cloakroom’; Corinna M. Peniston-
Bird, ‘The People’s War in Personal Testimony and Bronze: Sorority and
the Memorial to the Women of World War II’, in Lucy Noakes and Juliette
Pattinson (eds.), British CulturalMemory and the Second World War in
Britain (London: Bloomsbury, 2013).
45 Mary Abbott, a wartime FANY who was invited to the unveiling, was rather
dismissive: ‘Don’t think much of it . . . It’s a bit strange. All the greatcoats.
Hmmm’. Mary Abbott, interviewed by Juliette Pattinson, 5 December 2006
uniform.13 It explores how these soldiers calibrated
the violence they were called on to commit and how they rationalized it at its worst,
in order to understand the experiences that made men like Pierre Boyer cruel. Far
from being unambiguously modern in either conception or conduct, the argument
here is that these men’s experience of violence represents instead a complex interplay between the politics of the Revolutionary present and the culturalmemory of
past conflicts. One place to begin teasing out that complexity is, with due deference
to Said, Cairo and what one
resource in the construction of indigenous culturalmemory. It is apparent also,
however, that these testimonies impact on non-indigenous cultural and individual memory in
ways that are deeply troubling, producing ‘glimpses of a past that no longer seems to
be ours’. 2
Reconciliation places emphasis on individual experiences and expressions of
apology and responsibility for the past, and it includes symbolic gestures such as memorials
and walks, extending to broader social and community processes that pursue reparation and
wartime appeals for public
goodwill. The wartime popularity of ‘Soldiers’ Christmas Pudding’
perhaps created a residual culturalmemory that explains the
EMB’s later efforts to promote the ‘King’s Empire Christmas
Pudding’. In 1928, for example, the EMB invited press photographers to capture Leo Amery’s wife cutting a seven-foot-high
pudding baked at the Olympia Cookery Exhibition. The EMB
built upon this stunt by releasing posters, recipes and a film,
One Family, which attempted to popularise the same theme. 5
Although the EMB’s shopping weeks did not initiate the
French crime fiction and the Second World War explores France's preoccupation with memories of the Second World War through an examination of crime fiction, one of popular culture's most enduring literary forms. The study analyses representations of the war years in a selection of French crime novels from the late 1940s to the 2000s. All the crime novels discussed grapple with the challenges of what it means for generations past and present to live in the shadow of the war: from memories of French resistance and collaboration to Jewish persecution and the legacies of the concentration camps. The book argues that crime fiction offers novel ways for charting the two-way traffic between official discourses and popular reconstructions of such a contested conflict in French cultural memory.
The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.
By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this
volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of
violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities
across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications
of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the
study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical
significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the
myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and
non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the
Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex
than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance.
Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale
violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum,
ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was
privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early
modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent
forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in
activities not officially classed as war.