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The Radcliffe boundary commission and the partition of Punjab
Author: Lucy P. Chester

This book is the first full-length study of the 1947 drawing of the Indo-Pakistani boundary in Punjab. It uses the Radcliffe commission, headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe , as a window onto the decolonisation and independence of India and Pakistan. Examining the competing interests that influenced the actions of the various major players, the book highlights British efforts to maintain a grip on India even as the decolonisation process spun out of control. It examines the nature of power relationships within the colonial state, with a focus on the often-veiled exertion of British colonial power. With conflict between Hindus , Muslims and Sikhs reaching unprecedented levels in the mid-1940s , British leaders felt compelled to move towards decolonization. The partition was to be perceived as a South Asian undertaking, with British officials acting only as steady and impartial guides. Radcliffe's use of administrative boundaries reinforced the impact of imperial rule. The boundaries that Radcliffe defined turned out to be restless divisions, and in both the 1965 and 1971 wars India and Pakistan battled over their Punjabi border. After the final boundary, known as the 'Radcliffe award', was announced, all sides complained that Radcliffe had not taken the right 'other factors' into account. Radcliffe's loyalty to British interests is key to understanding his work in 1947. Drawing on extensive archival research in India, Pakistan and Britain, combined with innovative use of cartographic sources, the book paints a vivid picture of both the partition process and the Radcliffe line's impact on Punjab.

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Languages of colonial conflict after 1900

Stirring language and appeals to collective action were integral to the battles fought to defend empires and to destroy them. These wars of words used rhetoric to make their case. This book explores the arguments fought over empire in a wide variety of geographic, political, social and cultural contexts. Essays range from imperialism in the early 1900s, to the rhetorical battles surrounding European decolonization in the late twentieth century. Rhetoric is one of the weapons of war. Conquest was humiliating for Afrikaners but they regained a degree of sovereignty, with the granting of responsible government to the new colonies in 1907 and independence with the Act of Union of 1910. Liberal rhetoric on the Transvaal Crisis was thus neither an isolated debate nor simply the projection of existing political concerns onto an episode of imperial emergency. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's principles of intervention in response to crimes against civilization, constituted a second corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The rhetorical use of anti-imperial demonology was useful in building support for New Deal legislation. The book argues that rhetoric set out to portray the events at Mers el-Kebir within a culturally motivated framework, drawing on socially accepted 'truths' such as historic greatness and broad themes of hope. Now, over 175 years of monarchical presence in New Zealand the loyalty may be in question, devotion scoffed, the sycophantic language more demure and colloquialized, the medium of expression revolutionized and deformalized, but still the rhetoric of the realm remains in New Zealand.

Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Author: Mark Hampton

This book examines the place of Hong Kong in the British imagination between the end of World War II and the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997. It argues that Hong Kong has received far less attention from British imperial and cultural historians than its importance would warrant. It argues that Hong Kong was a site within which competing yet complementary visions of Britishness could be imagined—for example, the British penchant for trade and good government, and their role as agents of modernization. At the centre of these articulations of Britishness was the idea of Hong Kong as a “barren rock” that British administration had transformed into one of the world’s great cities—and the danger of its destruction by the impending “handover” to communist China in 1997.

The book moves freely between the activities of Britons in Hong Kong and portrayals of Hong Kong within domestic British discourse. It uses such printed primary sources as newspapers, memoirs, novels, political pamphlets, and academic texts, and archival material located in the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, the United States, and Australia, including government documents, regimental collections, and personal papers.

Martin Shipway

How close are we to an understanding of the workings of the French ‘official mind’ during the post-1945 period of late colonialism and decolonization? This would appear to be one of the remaining enigmas of French decolonization, unless one is prepared to accept at face value the general received wisdom that French officials were either dastardly, scheming Machiavellian

in Rhetorics of empire
Biological metaphors in the age of European decolonization
Elizabeth Buettner

powerfully those commonly associated with the impact of modern wartime violence and the political upheaval that reshaped Europe and its colonies, ranging from the First and Second World Wars of living memory to the wars of decolonization still being fought. Mid-twentieth-century claims of European nations’ organic inseparability from their colonies, dominions, Commonwealth, Union or ‘overseas territories

in Rhetorics of empire
The militarization of postwar France
Chris Pearson

ushered in a new layer of militarized environments. France was therefore part of the Cold War’s global environmental history and geography.2 Decolonization gave French Cold War-era militarized environments a particular twist. From culture to politics, decolonization informed and transformed French society in a myriad of ways.3 Through a focus on militarized environments this chapter sketches out some of its environmental dimensions, even if the in-depth environmental histories of France’s wars of decolonization lie outside this book’s scope.4 Like decolonization

in Mobilizing nature
Abstract only
Lucy P. Chester

with India] was all ashes and ruins and I had to stay in a burnt veranda of a burnt house where I heard the award on the 17th in a radio broadcast.’ 1 Although this man’s experience was a common one, he was no common traveller. He was, in fact, a member of the boundary commission responsible for drawing the boundary between India and Pakistan during the British decolonization of South Asia. The

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
The rhetorical consequences of a colonial massacre
Richard Toye

’s Coast Province, was one of the most notorious scandals in British colonial history. The outrage it generated at home – in some right-wing quarters, as well as on the left – has been credited directly with hastening the decolonization process. Historians have portrayed the massacre not merely as ‘the decisive event in Kenya’s path to independence’, 1 but also as a moment ‘which signalled the

in Rhetorics of empire
The historical context of partition
Lucy P. Chester

With conflict between Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs reaching unprecedented levels in the mid-1940s, British leaders felt compelled to move towards decolonization. Adding to the pressure driving this decision were international considerations and domestic pressures in Britain itself. When Mountbatten arrived in March 1947 as India’s last viceroy, he emphasized the need for haste

in Borders and conflict in South Asia