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Languages of colonial conflict after 1900

Stirring language and appeals to collective action were integral to the battles fought to defend empires and to destroy them. These wars of words used rhetoric to make their case. This book explores the arguments fought over empire in a wide variety of geographic, political, social and cultural contexts. Essays range from imperialism in the early 1900s, to the rhetorical battles surrounding European decolonization in the late twentieth century. Rhetoric is one of the weapons of war. Conquest was humiliating for Afrikaners but they regained a degree of sovereignty, with the granting of responsible government to the new colonies in 1907 and independence with the Act of Union of 1910. Liberal rhetoric on the Transvaal Crisis was thus neither an isolated debate nor simply the projection of existing political concerns onto an episode of imperial emergency. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's principles of intervention in response to crimes against civilization, constituted a second corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The rhetorical use of anti-imperial demonology was useful in building support for New Deal legislation. The book argues that rhetoric set out to portray the events at Mers el-Kebir within a culturally motivated framework, drawing on socially accepted 'truths' such as historic greatness and broad themes of hope. Now, over 175 years of monarchical presence in New Zealand the loyalty may be in question, devotion scoffed, the sycophantic language more demure and colloquialized, the medium of expression revolutionized and deformalized, but still the rhetoric of the realm remains in New Zealand.

The Radcliffe boundary commission and the partition of Punjab
Author: Lucy P. Chester

This book is the first full-length study of the 1947 drawing of the Indo-Pakistani boundary in Punjab. It uses the Radcliffe commission, headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe , as a window onto the decolonisation and independence of India and Pakistan. Examining the competing interests that influenced the actions of the various major players, the book highlights British efforts to maintain a grip on India even as the decolonisation process spun out of control. It examines the nature of power relationships within the colonial state, with a focus on the often-veiled exertion of British colonial power. With conflict between Hindus , Muslims and Sikhs reaching unprecedented levels in the mid-1940s , British leaders felt compelled to move towards decolonization. The partition was to be perceived as a South Asian undertaking, with British officials acting only as steady and impartial guides. Radcliffe's use of administrative boundaries reinforced the impact of imperial rule. The boundaries that Radcliffe defined turned out to be restless divisions, and in both the 1965 and 1971 wars India and Pakistan battled over their Punjabi border. After the final boundary, known as the 'Radcliffe award', was announced, all sides complained that Radcliffe had not taken the right 'other factors' into account. Radcliffe's loyalty to British interests is key to understanding his work in 1947. Drawing on extensive archival research in India, Pakistan and Britain, combined with innovative use of cartographic sources, the book paints a vivid picture of both the partition process and the Radcliffe line's impact on Punjab.

Author: Mark Hampton

This book examines the place of Hong Kong in the British imagination between the end of World War II and the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997. It argues that Hong Kong has received far less attention from British imperial and cultural historians than its importance would warrant. It argues that Hong Kong was a site within which competing yet complementary visions of Britishness could be imagined—for example, the British penchant for trade and good government, and their role as agents of modernization. At the centre of these articulations of Britishness was the idea of Hong Kong as a “barren rock” that British administration had transformed into one of the world’s great cities—and the danger of its destruction by the impending “handover” to communist China in 1997.

The book moves freely between the activities of Britons in Hong Kong and portrayals of Hong Kong within domestic British discourse. It uses such printed primary sources as newspapers, memoirs, novels, political pamphlets, and academic texts, and archival material located in the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, the United States, and Australia, including government documents, regimental collections, and personal papers.

Martin Shipway

How close are we to an understanding of the workings of the French ‘official mind’ during the post-1945 period of late colonialism and decolonization? This would appear to be one of the remaining enigmas of French decolonization, unless one is prepared to accept at face value the general received wisdom that French officials were either dastardly, scheming Machiavellian

in Rhetorics of empire
Biological metaphors in the age of European decolonization
Elizabeth Buettner

powerfully those commonly associated with the impact of modern wartime violence and the political upheaval that reshaped Europe and its colonies, ranging from the First and Second World Wars of living memory to the wars of decolonization still being fought. Mid-twentieth-century claims of European nations’ organic inseparability from their colonies, dominions, Commonwealth, Union or ‘overseas territories

in Rhetorics of empire
Three centuries of Anglophone humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism
Trevor Burnard, Joy Damousi, and Alan Lester

new spheres of social and economic life, cash-strapped late-colonial States were compelled to draw more and more on the resources of the voluntary, charitable and humanitarian sectors’ to ameliorate that suffering. 88 From the 1960s, NGO appeals to donor publics, Matthew Hilton argues, ‘were a formative factor in how European electorates engaged with decolonization … these organizations gained the capacity to direct

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995
Romain Fathi, Margaret Hutchison, Andrekos Varnava, and Michael J. K. Walsh

Erez Manela, The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). 15 James Kitchen, ‘Colonial empires after the war/decolonization’, in Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer and Bill Nasson (eds), 1914–1918-online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War , issued by Freie Universität Berlin

in Exiting war
The rhetorical consequences of a colonial massacre
Richard Toye

’s Coast Province, was one of the most notorious scandals in British colonial history. The outrage it generated at home – in some right-wing quarters, as well as on the left – has been credited directly with hastening the decolonization process. Historians have portrayed the massacre not merely as ‘the decisive event in Kenya’s path to independence’, 1 but also as a moment ‘which signalled the

in Rhetorics of empire
Aboriginal slavery and white Australia
Amanda Nettelbeck

: Indigenous People, Missionaries and Male Sexuality, 1830–1850’, in Ingereth Macfarlane and Mark Hannah (eds), Transgressions: Critical Australian Indigenous Histories (Canberra, Australia: ANU e-Press, 2007), p. 230. 46 Neta Crawford, Argument and Change in World Politics: Ethics, Decolonization and Humanitarian Intervention

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995
The individual exception in the discourse of humanitarianism
Katherine Ellinghaus

, 2009); Miranda Johnson, ‘Connecting Indigenous Rights to Human Rights in the Anglo Settler States: Another 1970s Story’, in Dirk Moses, Marco Duranti and Roland Burke (eds), Decolonization, Self-Determination, and the Rise of Global Human Rights (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2020), pp. 109–31. For histories of Aboriginal activism, see John Maynard, Fight for Liberty and Freedom: The

in Humanitarianism, empire and transnationalism, 1760–1995