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Julian M. Simpson

124 4 Discrimination and the development of general practice The presence of migrant South Asian doctors in the British healthcare system can be linked to the existence of a post-​imperial recruitment system in post-​war Britain and the lingering effects of the empire of the mind in South Asia. Their movement into general practice, however, requires to be understood in a different way. This chapter and Chapter 5 will show how a discriminatory professional environment limited these doctors’ options and how their responses to this context contributed to defining

in Migrant architects of the NHS
Professional politics and public education in Britain, 1870–1970

Challenging the assumption that the stigma attached to mental illness stems from public ignorance and irresponsible media coverage, this book examines mental healthcare workers’ efforts to educate the public in Britain between 1870 and 1970. It covers a period which saw the polarisation of madness and sanity give way to a belief that mental health and illness formed a continuum, and in which segregative care within the asylum began to be displaced by the policy of community care. The book argues that the representations of mental illness conveyed by psychiatrists, nurses and social workers were by-products of professional aspirations, economic motivations and perceptions of the public, sensitive to shifting social and political currents. Sharing the stigma of their patients, many healthcare workers sought to enhance the prestige of psychiatry by emphasising its ability to cure acute and minor mental disorder. However, this strategy exacerbated the stigma attached to severe and enduring mental health problems. Indeed, healthcare workers occasionally fuelled the stereotype of the violent, chronically-ill male patient in an attempt to protect their own interests. Drawing on service users’ observations, the book contends that current campaigns, which conflate diverse experiences under the label mental illness, risk trivialising the difficulties facing people who live with severe and enduring mental disturbance, and fail to address the political, economic and social factors which fuel discrimination.


Children born even one day before their parents' marriage remained illegitimate for life, while those born one day after a wedding had the full benefits of legitimacy. This book explores the legal and social consequences of growing up illegitimate in England and Wales. It concentrates on the late-Victorian period and the early twentieth century, and takes the child's point of view rather than that of the mother or of 'child-saving' groups. An extended analysis of criminal and civil cases involving illegitimacy, including less-studied aspects such as affiliation suits, the poor law and war pensions is presented. In the twentieth century, illegitimate children gained more family, and adoption became an option after 1926. Women had choices when faced with unwanted children, and many chose to suffer in the workhouse rather than harm their babies. Though the criminal courts were harder on non-maternal defendants, mothers were collusive in many crimes. The two legal processes illegitimate children were most likely to inspire were often entwined - affiliation proceedings and the poor law. Problems with the bastardy laws abounded, legislative successes were few in the nineteenth century. Fostering encouraged child circulation because of its temporary nature. The effects of social discrimination changed when children went to their jobs, dividing those with family from those without. Differences of class and gender also influenced the scope of illegitimacy's reach. Placing the stigma on Victorian children was simple, but ridding the law of the term was painfully slow, and abolishing its power even slower.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

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The man who gave hope to india’s dispossessed
Series: Global Icons

B. R. Ambedkar is a short and accessible biography of the pre-eminent leader of India’s Dalits (formerly “Untouchables”), Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956). It provides a complete narrative of his life, starting as the fourteenth and last child of a solider in an Army cantonment, his struggle to acquire a world-class education, his campaigns to advance Dalit rights, his political achievements and setbacks, his extensive speeches and writings, and his political and religious ideas. It summarises major landmarks in his career, analyses his convictions, insights and flaws, and discusses his legacy and lasting impact on India and the world.

Integration policy in Britain and France after the SecondWorld War
Eleanor Passmore
Andrew S. Thompson

identified as a contributory factor in causing the Notting Hill riots of 1958, but with the potential repercussions of civic unrest for the UK’s relationship with the Commonwealth. This chapter seeks to demonstrate that contemporary British immigration policy – comprising border controls, the promotion of integration and anti-discrimination legislation – is, to a significant extent, the legacy of the post

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
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Vicky Long

often healthcare workers in the past – and anti-­stigma campaigners today – draw upon a model of stigma which focuses upon public misconceptions and interpersonal interactions, overlooking structural factors which generated and perpetuated discrimination. Finally, for those readers with little or no prior knowledge of the history of mental healthcare, I will sketch out key pieces of legislation with affected the nature of psychiatric care in this era. Further details can be found in the timeline at the end of this book. In 1993, Roy  Porter and Mark Micale cogently

in Destigmatising mental illness?
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Is it time to change our approach to anti-stigma campaigns?
Vicky Long

public prejudice required modification. As we saw in the previous chapter the radio producer Diana Hyde rescinded her view that the stigma attached to mental illness emanated from ignorance and fear and could be removed by public education. Hyde conceded in a report that people feared mental distress because they recognised that sufferers experienced discrimination in their relationships and careers.4 What is curious about Hyde’s epiphany is that she chose not to act upon it. Rather than address the distress and discrimination experienced by people diagnosed with a

in Destigmatising mental illness?
Agnes Arnold-Forster

institution’ and did not reflect society nor the changing profession of surgery. The report was published in March 2021 and is replete with personal testimonies of racism and discrimination: ‘I feel [as a Black surgeon] that I suffer a different level of scrutiny from other surgeons – and have access to much less support – and it can be very frightening.’ 1 As shown in the previous chapter , surgery is male

in Cold, hard steel
Simon Peplow

, ‘Such periodization cannot on its own provide an explanation for such conflict, but without it any explanation will inevitably lack plausibility’.1 This first chapter addresses the history of black and minority ethnic people in Britain following increased Commonwealth migration after the Second World War, and subsequent relationship with an often-​hostile society, experiencing widespread discrimination, racial violence and a political consensus to depoliticise and marginalise racial issues. It examines the development of activism and militancy, considering the build

in Race and riots in Thatcher’s Britain